Hearing the name "K-10", someone might remember the metal doors - the so-called brand of one of them; someone - ceramic capacitors; someone - microprocessors: some of them have the same abbreviation ... submariners immediately thought about the submarine of the Pacific Fleet, commanded by Captain 1st Rank Valery Medvedev. And, of course, just remember the rumors about how Medvedev sank a Chinese submarine, resulting in the alleged killing about a hundred people.
Do not try to "google" spaces of the Internet - there are details of the catastrophe will not find. Because no articles or documents any appreciable traces she left. And the Chinese specifically about her did not tell the world. And the Russian prefer to pretend that nothing had. In the best case, you will fall in the eyes of an article in "Wikipedia", where there is such a paragraph: "01/21/1983. K-10. Project 675, Echo-II. THE USSR. Nuclear-powered submarine. The submerged faced with an unknown object. After surfacing nothing but spots Solarium, were found. None of the countries in the Pacific on his submarine accidents were reported. Only two years later appeared in the Chinese press obituary on the death of the day a group of scientists on submarines. Officially, these events were not compared ».
As Medvedev sank a Chinese submarine
We will try to match. Although, if only because Medvedev himself has been 28 years of living with this memory.
Secrets of the Cold War
We recently met with the former captain of the submarine "K-10" Valery Nikolayevich. Obninsk near Moscow. Normal apartment with traditional surroundings. Paintings on the walls depicting the sea and submarine reported that seaman's family lives here. On the coffee table you can see a thick piece of metal - plating of the hull: you can see, the commander was preparing for a meeting with journalists. Valery in an officer's uniform. For courage?
To begin remember that the clash "K-10" with "some" boat was neither the first nor the last. If you list all the underwater collision, it may give the impression that the world's oceans teeming with submarines floating in it like Minestrone soup - boiled vegetables. By the way, including recent versions of the accident the passenger liner "Concordia" in the Italian coasts also a version of a collision with a submarine. Among other memorable rumors: Americans have accused that it was their fault there was an accident "Kursk": that the two submarines shtatovskih Project Los Angeles - Memphis and Toledo - are in the region of Northern Fleet exercise August 12, 2000. But after the disaster Memphis went into the Norwegian port of Bergen for repairs. But the US Department of Defense did not allow the Russian side to inspect the ships to make sure that none of them are damaged.
Hero of the Soviet Union, Vice-Admiral Yevgeny Chernov recalled the case when our "K-306" as rammed American "Patrick Henry," that she surfaced, and her crew began vigorously fight for survival.
Admiral Igor Kasatonov in his memoirs, "The Navy released into the ocean," he writes: "20 submarine collision, to a greater extent the fault of the Americans, happened lately. The most severe was a battering ram "K-19" November 15, 1969, put an American boat "Getou" at the bottom of the Barents Sea. Then only a miracle saved the Americans from death ».
... Such examples - tens, if not hundreds. Accidents and disasters are generally not described in the press - during the Cold War, and afterwards it was decided to classify everything. And then there was no Internet and Wikileaks. And the sailors by force of habit is not likely to ensure that digging up the past. But though long overdue, but the truth is trying to emerge out. Thus emerges the oily stain, indicating that somewhere in the depths of the sea accident occurred. Only short-sighted otmahnёtsya looking at this spot. The truth do not need to delve into the old wound. It is necessary at least in order to learn lessons and avoid the recurrence of the tragedy.
My friend diver, now retired, Anatoly Safonov wrote in his website: "... Captain 1st Rank Valery Medvedev is a patriot of his country, where he spent his life selflessly served. His love for the motherland, he showed in an exemplary duty ... »
It looks like a line from the party characteristics. But, in the words of Safonov, neither inclined to sentimentality, nor to more respect for party-political bodies, these words are applied to Medvedev fair and accurate.
The only thing that kleilos Safonov in the exemplary characteristics of the brave sailor, - the history of dumb question: why so long remained silent and did not dare to tell the truth about what happened? Looking ahead, I note that it seemed to me that during our conversation Valery said not all.
So, in front of me was not very tall sturdy pensioner. He spoke quietly, not as usual in the Navy commander says.
Valery remembered ...
January 22, 1983 "K-10" is located in the South China Sea. Combat service went on as usual, and, as they say in such cases, "there were no signs of trouble." Depth under the keel - 4500 meters (divers joke: "Five minutes by bus"). It was Saturday. After bathing the personnel of the submarine watched feature film in the first compartment.
The appointed for entering the Area came eight hours before the deadline. The area itself was required to enter into strictly scheduled time.
Commander Medvedev decided to check the absence of monitoring by the anti-US forces and Japan. When you turn on the opposite course has received the relevant reports from the hydrophone. Everything was clean! Immersion depth - 54 meters.
Suddenly there was a jolt: the feeling that the boat ran into some obstacle. The impact was soft, but powerful. From the collision severely shook the whole body of the submarine. "K-10", if grappled with an unknown object, for some time moved with him. Then they disengage. Instantly the alarm was declared emergency. The first nasal three compartments have been sealed with the people who were in them.
On speakerphone Medvedev asked the first compartment. In response - silence. The deafening. You can imagine the feelings of the commander at that moment. Meanwhile, the boat was on its way and given depth with a small drop in speed. Slightly increased the trim on the nose.
Medvedev said: "I am constantly asked for the first compartment. In case of a collision of the sailors certainly got a lot of stress, it was necessary to clarify the situation ... After two minutes, which seemed like an eternity, the first report took place: the compartment is sealed! »
The 21 hour 31 minute floated on the surface. Above the sea raging typhoon. Monstrous force winds and huge waves threw the boat, as a small sliver. Nights in the dark latitudes, can, therefore, looking through a periscope optics sea Medvedev, he said, he saw nothing. I gave the command to return to the point of collision. Arriving there, they co-driver and signalman saw an orange flashing light retreating submarine. After about 30-40 seconds the fire was gone.
Medvedev repeated several times: "On seen the flashing lights of the submarine is the first time I say ...»
Valery stopped. Apparently, he remembered those difficult moments. It is a hundred times mentally returning to the area and tried to figure out what kind of boat to the collision occurred. He came to the conclusion that with the Chinese. And here's why. In accordance with the Government of the USSR from 01.09.1959 to CDB-16 from March to December 1959 was prepared by the working drawings and technical documentation for the project with a set of 629 D-1 missile R-11FM for transmission to the People's Republic of China. By the fall of 1960 at a shipyard in Dalian (China, the former city of Far) the laying of the first Chinese submarine project 629. To speed up the construction of its widely used Soviet design, as well as equipment and machinery from the submarine "K-139" (launched on Water in May 1960). Construction of the Chinese submarine was completed in late 1961 and received hull number 200. At the same time in Komsomolsk-on-Amur submarines laid under the serial number 138.
After the construction of the ship was transported by parts in China and the end of 1962 put into operation under the number 208. Later, two years after the incident with "K-10", it was reported that in 1983 the Chinese submarine number 208 was lost with all hands and a group of scientists and engineers during the testing of Chinese ballistic missile JL-1.
Given that the boat crew of the project is about 629 100 people and that there was still a group of civilian experts can only guess the exact number of victims.
It is noteworthy that the Chinese side has not officially linked to the death of a collision of the boat. Now you can almost say with absolute certainty that the Chinese submarine was killed in a clash with "K-10". Had the submarine "K-10" at the point of collision for five seconds earlier, perhaps it would now be lying at a depth of 4,500 meters.
... On Collision Medvedev, of course, immediately reported to the fleet. In response, it was ordered to follow on the surface to the base of Cam Ranh Bay, located in South Vietnam. Escorted them approached BOD "Petropavlovsk". When viewed from a boat (for this was created by the stern trim) revealed that it has a strong nose of the damage. Among warped bow "K-10" were discovered pieces of foreign metal. The keel steel track "K-10" thickness of 30 mm and a length of about 32 meters in the collision was cut like a razor.
After inspection of the submarine fleet command decided that in disrepair her the strength to overcome the 4,500 kilometers to the main base submerged, forcing the passage Bashi, Okinawa and Korea Strait on the surface. Of course, it was almost crazy: at such a damage - and underwater! But orders are orders. Without acoustic stations almost touch, but 4500 km it was normal. Medvedev was confident in his crew. And the crew did not disappoint his commander. During this transition in a different situation to reward sailors shone.
But not at this time. At this time, the Soviet Navy Commander SG Gorshkov Medvedev announced the recovery.
"Blind" and "dead»
Themselves emerge not only the details of the case, but the question: how could this happen? The complex hydrology in the area? Poor opportunities sonar? Poor preparation hydroacousticians? The presence of so-called dead zone or blind? Why make the same mistakes committed and crew boats China?
It is known that it was investigating the cause of the accident experts committee of technical management of the Pacific Fleet and the Navy. Why then even submarine of the Pacific Fleet did not know about it?
It is believed a participant in those events. Alexander Dobrogorsky served on the "K-10", and the day he served as a mechanical engineer on watch. Here is what he wrote to me: "As far as I remember - and it took a long time - we have started to circulate left jab and followed. That is a collision. So they (the Chinese submarine. - Comm. Aut.) Were sitting on our tail. Whether it's fatal accident, in which I do not believe: Oceans too large for such accidents.
... Why the Chinese are not solved our maneuver, ie circulation? God knows. Most likely they were ill-equipped underwater acoustics. As far as I know, when tracking the submarine for submarine depth should be different and should be a certain distance to the object, in the event that it was possible to have time to make protivomanevr. But this time it did not happen: the two met in a grain of sand boundless depths, it's just a phenomenon of some sort ...
... Upon arrival at Cam Ranh We were waiting for members of the State Commission. By the pier we were not allowed to put on the anchor. He came up with the members of the committee boat and divers. No one was not allowed upstairs. Specialists examined everything. Conclusions of the examination, we did not report. Medvedev seems zadrobili Academy did not give kapraza (promoted to captain of the 1st rank. - Ed.) And reprimanded the name of Commander of the Navy.
... After returning to Pavlovsk we began to cut mutilated torpedo tubes, which cover pootryvat the moment of impact, and because there were torpedoes with nuclear warheads (nuclear warheads).
After talking with some other divers emerged that a senior on board "K-10" was the Chief of Staff of the division 29-1 submarine captain of the 2nd rank of the wing. After the collision of boats employee of the Special Department arrested logbooks central station and navigator. Krylov long dealt with the Specials. As a result of a private conversation, it was decided to rewrite these magazines. Even rewrite the magazine main power plant because Premier League high-speed mode by following it in the area of combat duty was badly broken and the boat came to the area in 3 hours earlier. Log in to the area before it was impossible to watch. So he hung around until faced with the Chinese ».
But the view of the former submarine commander Viktor Bondarenko, whom we met in the same place, in Obninsk:
- Valery did everything correctly. Why did he come to the area before 8 hours, apparently, it had some foundation, but that's his problem. The bad news is that there is no timing - when faced when they returned to the place of the collision, which had speed, etc.
Tracking the Chinese diesel submarine of nuclear-powered ships - so can reason only amateur. The Chinese carried out the next stage of testing, the crew is not fulfilled, they are generally not allowed to be distracted by unusual challenges, in addition to the tests. Even if they found a Soviet icebreaker, then we had to pass it on the radio on shore and continue their work. Total from submarines was that the technical specifications have been virtually identical acoustic station.
The crew on the "K-10" has been worked out, but the maneuver to check the feed course angles is very responsible, and the acoustics are very attentive to this concern.
Let's think. Once the boats collided, then they were at the same depth - 54 meters. Further, Medvedev said that at this time the top of the raging storm. And if so, then the noise of both submarines were masked by noise sea. In this situation, even the good acoustics and the Excellent-hydrophone not allocate sound of a submarine from the noise of the sea - it is an axiom.
Medvedev said that after surfacing, he found an orange flashing light. So, too, the Chinese boat surfaced, why then she drowned - is the question. If she drowned after a collision, and surfaced, and then drowned, then it is quite clear. So, something they did wrong, because miracles do not happen, if it were that easy, then after hitting a stone they would have gone to the bottom, commemorating Mao. So Valery need not hang all the dogs.
In 1981, on one of the grounds of the Northern Fleet of the Kola Bay near the collision occurred between Soviet and American nuclear submarines. Then an American submarine rammed his wheelhouse aft latest Soviet missile submarine of strategic purpose "K-211", has just entered the Northern Fleet and practiced elements of combat training. The American boat is in the area of the collision has not surfaced. But after a few days in the area of the British naval base of Holy Loch appeared US atomic submarine with pronounced cutting injuries. Our boat surfaced and come to their own power base. Here it expected a commission consisting of specialists of the fleet, industry, science and designer.
Commission to simulate the situation of the two boats maneuver, having examined the injury, found that the American boat followed our boat in her fodder sectors remaining to her in an acoustic shadow. As soon as our boat changed course, the American boat lost contact and blindly ran his wheelhouse aft Soviet boats. She put in the dock, and there during the inspection were found in two main ballast tanks feed holes, damage to the right propeller blades and the horizontal stabilizer. The damaged main ballast tanks were found pan-head screws, pieces of metal from the complex and cutting US submarine. Moreover, on specific details of the commission was able to establish that there was a clash with the American submarine class "Stёrdzhen" that later was confirmed appearance in Holy Loch boats damaged logging of this particular class.
... Projecting this case in the event of a collision with a Chinese boat, unwittingly come to a version that could be the cause of the collision the notorious "feed sector with acoustic shadows».
You can also recall another case - a clash of class nuclear submarine "Sierra" (Northern Fleet) from the nuclear submarine "Baton Rouge" (US Navy) February 11, 1992. Soviet nuclear submarine torpedo (presumably it was a "K-239", "carp") was in the range of combat training near the Fishermen Peninsula, in the territorial waters of Russia. He commanded a submarine captain of the 2nd rank I. elbow.