Correspondent "MK" learned how to live in the XXI century the natives of the North - Nenets reindeer herders.
This region is not in vain called "the edge of the earth." It really ends here, at least in the sense of Central Russia. The restaurants Salekhard builders can afford pork knuckle for 1200 rubles, and only 400 kilometers from the city, in the tundra, Nenets nomadic still drink the blood of the reindeer. Here, even in the capital region, the Internet is intermittent, but it is no surprise a satellite dish installed on the "roof" plague. In hospitals, the most modern equipment, and to the camp it is still possible to meet children on the birth certificate which reads: "Yarsalinskii tundra."
There undesirable area of residence for the person: prolonged northern nights and maddening sun polar day. But for those living under the laws of the Nenets ancestors no more desirable land: "Without the tundra and we have no deer." Once they are independent, freedom-loving, running across the tundra from the Soviet authorities. Now - are increasingly dependent on Russia.
The track in the suburbs of Salekhard. In the light of car headlights turn snatches of endless snow dunes on the roadside reindeer. Near frantically waving his arms a small tent. Brakes. Chum runs, holds out his hand in greeting: "Toljan".
"I do not spend much on the way? And we have no lights to be seen. Can crush! "
The driver, who was meeting with voters on the track is not particularly surprising aboriginal, are not averse to organize a "light" motorcade. In response Toljan pulls from his pocket malitsa - Nenets national clothes from reindeer skins - communicator. Not just a mobile phone, and so, what would be in the capital envy. "Let me write down the phone. Suddenly venison need? I once a month in the village of am. I'll call ".
The region of contrasts. The edge of the earth ...
- It is good that a paramedic of the factors the exact coordinates of the camp named. Sometimes the call comes directly from the nomadic Nenets: river so something for the average. The tent and looks out the window. - On flights in the tundra Dr. Andrey Ivanov says like an ordinary trips to the "emergency." In principle, the way it is: Call the tundra in Yamal air ambulance for the year is incident to a thousand.
The camp, which is hundreds of kilometers from the village of Yar-Sale, are we going to pick up 11-month-old baby, who had a few days the temperature under forty. And at the same time deliver to Salekhard nenok two heavily pregnant.
In the tundra obstetrician Andrey Ivanov - a famous personality. Almost every plague can be heard: "Red doctor saved the life of his wife".
- It's about three years ago I bought a ski jacket red - laughing Andrey Ivanov. - Warm proved, that I'm in it for the challenges and summer. It has long worn out, and the nickname "Red doctor" all roams from the camp to the camp ...
The "chopper" Dr. Ivanov introduces us to tundra etiquette.
- Chum divided into sectors: the right of the fireplace is the male half of the left - female. If you need to go from one half to another, in any case, do not go for the center. This area is considered sacred. They live in some of the icon, while others - ittermy, ritual dolls, made from ordinary chocks 33 blows of an ax. Each itterma - a repository of the soul of a deceased relative. Nenetses carry them along as long as they do not forget after whom they are made. Then they are left in the tundra - explains the doctor.
However, according to Ivanov, it is important to not even like you walked into the tent and shook hands with the hosts. The main thing - to adopt a completely different mentality.
- Here nobody is in a hurry, everything is very measured. Bustle of the tundra - a bad tone.
... Decreases. Directly below us, in the midst of rugged tundra rivers ribbons, appears "thimble" plague. Around - hundreds of figurines of deer the size of a needle's eye. From the window they resemble a flock of mosquitoes. Sit down. "Deer midges" scatters from rotating at high speed blades.
Camp, where we arrived, consists of only one tent. A few meters away in the snow sitting boy about five years old, trying to escape from the rigid crust twig. On the street cold forty degrees: eyelashes are covered with frost on beards for men grow icicles. A boy and sitting in the snow, struggling with dwarf trees.
The family to which we arrived, quite poor. In the Nenets plague the wealthy have a satellite dish, a generator, and hence all the benefits of civilization.
- Because frostbitten! - We observe.
- What are you - waving doctor. - In this dress made of reindeer skin (called a jumper male, female - rog), you can sleep in the snow. Nenets and do if they found a blizzard on the tundra.
Children are loaded very early adult concerns: the boys in the four years to help parents to look for firewood and watch deer, girls - to sew and cook.
- I remember we arrived on a call on one base - gives the example of a doctor. - I went to the house, there sat seven men, shift workers - healthy such drunken. Following comes a little Nenets boy with a bucket of water. His name was Prokofi.
- What are you doing here? - I ask.
- Water is a burden, porridge cook, melt the stove. Uncles help.
- And how old were you?
- Four and a half! - Almost on the fingers of a child showing ...
- It turns out that the baby was discharged from the hospital district and brought to this bazirovku - continues to the doctor. - Parents in the tundra - no one knows where. The only thing the boy knew that in three weeks they will have to pass through this place and take him.
At the reception, a pediatrician at the hospital of the village Yar-Sale
Blood da meat - our food
Raising the curtain is covered with ice, enter the tent. On the wooden floor laid reindeer skins. They sit two baby four years - rocked the cradle with the infant. Couple hanging from the ceiling light stoves barely standing in the center of the plague small stoves. Puffs covered with soot makers. Plaintive whining dog.
It seems that life is stuck in the last century. In fact, for such poverty tundra is the exception rather than the rule. In the tents, where they live off families, a generator, TV, satellite dish, DVD, washing machine. Some even carry a bath.
On a low table - a few cups, a plate with a deer steak. Menu tundra in diversity: of course, there are also pasta, and cereals, but the foundation of any meal - a deer. Not only eat its meat, but also drink blood. Previously, it was the only way to combat scurvy now more tradition. A deer brains tundra kids seem any ice cream tasty.
While Irina paramedic examines a baby, his mother watches over the actions of the doctor with one eye. Second thoroughly swollen.
- The tablet should be - complains Nenets.
- The hospital needs - heard a paramedic response.
As soon learned to walk, the children help parents monitor the economy.
But she is in no hurry to meet. Tears run down the frostbite, brown crust covered cheeks. In unison it roar two young sons.
Later, in Salekhard district hospital, we were told that women tundra - the most problematic category of patients. The fact that they are here for all household duties. Should she go to the hospital - I think the family will be left without a roof over their head. The thing that sets the Nenets tent exclusively female. In the summer operated by one hour in winter - and a half. "When the heat, cover (nukes. -" MC "), use a tarp in the winter - reindeer skins. In one tent out of eighty pieces, - explains the laconic, like all the inhabitants of the tundra, the hostess. - When driving around here the hospitals? "
- Especially a lot of the problems we have with pregnant they give birth once, immediately rush back - says head physician of the hospital Michael Kogan.
Until a few decades ago, women and all refused to give birth in a hospital - to put them in a special tent camp. About to undergo an examination, speech and could not be. The result - half of the children died in the first weeks of life.
- Paramedics found a way to calculate the pregnancy. The fact that, instead of diapers then used moss, which began to gather even in the first months of pregnancy. Paramedic noticed a woman doing this - just driving to the survey, - says Irina. - By the way, even now, many families neglect diapers, using the old moss. He even to the hospital to give birth, some patients take.
In general, according to the observations of doctors, Nenets differ remarkably good health. They have almost no cardiovascular disease, they do not suffer from ulcers, gastritis. If the tundra introduced prohibition, there would have been at all the edge of centenarians.
School of city life
In six years, the life of the Nenets children changed radically. The tundra them flies a helicopter to take them to the orphanage. It is in the first years after the establishment of Soviet power in the Yamal Nenets hid children forcibly uvozimyh employees "red plague" in the villages to study. Now tundra value education. Nenets people who have not completed a nine, almost gone. Vaccination civilization for most tundra passed painful.
- I was nine years old when I first came to the village to study. I remember, on the way father stopped the sled and began to show up at the sky: "flying boat". Since I first saw the plane. From fear shrank in sledges and kept thinking, if he does not fall on us, - she shared her childhood memories pensioner Nina Larovna, with whom we met at the fair in Salekhard. - And, you will laugh, I have long feared the doors in the homes. I always seemed to me that they eat, pinch.
Of course, by today's children do not hear stories about iron birds or mechanical sledges. But they got into a boarding school, experiencing culture shock.
- At first I was afraid to open Crane - laughing 9-year Tolia, a pupil of the boarding school in the village of Yar-Sale. - And the sound of water in the toilet.
The boarding school in the village of Yar-Sale - the largest of these educational institutions in Russia. Six modern buildings, several computer labs, biological, chemical and physical laboratories. Here and in some Moscow students have something to fall into a stupor. That is why the children first enter the preschool class - a kind of preparatory group for the life in the city.
- Almost all of the teachers pre-school classes - the indigenous nationality. The first thing they do is teach children hygiene. Learn to use the toilet, brush your teeth - explains the director Nikolai Shemyakin.
But the main duty of educators - to teach children to speak to each other in Russian. After all, although their parents and know the great and mighty, chatting in the family mainly in Nenets. Get a taste of life in the city, tundra do not tend to return to his native camp. Total 15-17% of graduates go after graduation herd reindeer. Last year there and did set a record: 95% of 11-graders enrolled in universities.
Around the walls are two girls of about fourteen. One T-shirt "Tokio Hotel", the second in Kuta hoodie. Both bent over cell phones. Hearing the question about the return of the tundra, they embarrassed shrug. But in the view is read clearly: "Are we fools? .."
Lena and Masha's future is already laid out: at first admission to the Tyumen Oil and Gas University, then - married City.
In fact, the life line of the tundra is not always built in a straight line "Tundra boarding-Institute-village". Sometimes she closes the ring.
- I was familiar with the pilot-Nenets, who 20 years forth to "Mi-8", and having retired, he went back to the tundra - said Andrey Ivanov. - Bought in the village apartment nephews gave. He says - I can not more spaciousness want tranquility.
The editor of the tribe of seashells
Nenets editor of the newspaper "Nyaryana Ngerm" ("Krasny Sever") is just one of them. In Salekhard his duplex with four bedrooms and two bathrooms, and a month goes by that he did not go to the tundra. All four children - higher education, and at home they are still trying to speak Nenets.
- Yaungad Habecha Hyvarevich, leader of the tribe of seashells, risen from the dead, the son of the Shrew, the grandson of a polar bear, a walrus-grandson - ottaratoril Glavred, extending his hand in greeting.
Without waiting for our questions in a series of "where's the name?" Explained:
- Habecha - name. Translated as "risen from the dead." When I was born, the umbilical cord wrapped around his neck and nearly strangled me. But grandmother, knowing the technique of acupuncture and other traditional remedies, brought me back to life. But you can call me Uncle Fyodor Fyodor or - so families are turning to me. After the names of the Nenets tundra have considered sacred. They never called them to each other, and enjoy Russian "aliases".
About traditions and beliefs tundra Uncle Fyodor could talk for hours.
- Bride of the young man must first bring to the head family. If you approve the choices, you can get married. Three times I brought the girls to his uncle - and three times he said: "Look better, you will not be happy with it." Only on the fourth time he gave the go-ahead for the marriage. And I was right after all: how many years I live with my wife, and in her soul not to tea.
The boarding tundra children each year are delivered by helicopter
So far, the assurances of Fyodor, the local population is almost no divorces. "A woman can not live in the tundra, and the parents in the way ordered her tent".
- Another thing, if the husband dies. Then, the children did not go around the world, women are more likely to marry her husband's younger brother - explains Habecha Yaungad. - But it is only in such cases of emergency. That's marriages within the clan are excluded.
By the way, the rite of burial in the tundra also reached today is almost unchanged. Due to the fact that around the permafrost, to bury the coffin into the ground is impossible. Therefore, the dead man is left above ground.
- From the moment of a person's death to his burial may take several months. All the while, the family gathers in the tundra logs suitable for the manufacture of the coffin, and the human body carries with him at the special sledges - explains Habecha Havyrevich. - Every family has a generic way kaslaniya cemetery located on a hill. When the coffin was ready, he left there. Gradually the ground thaws, and the coffin goes underground. Only in the 50 years of its Tundra is completely absorbed
And the "Buran" - well, and the engine - well, and the deer better
The "horn" tundra Habecha Yaungad has been working for more than thirty years. All this time the newspaper is delivered to the villages, where it has already taken nomadic aborigines. They say Nenets dismantle all one thousand copies. After all, the central channels that they are caught in the plague of problems close to them do not speak.
Basic - a relationship with the oil.
- Here, for example, now in connection with the development of deposits of 400-500 Bolonenkovskogo families need to transfer to a sedentary life. These areas have long since passed way kaslaniya deer, but now there is drilling. But all of life is based on the Nenets reindeer - in the village of unemployed people just die - says Uncle Theodore.
In the 90 years of confrontation Aboriginal and oil companies came to armed conflict. Now both sides prefer to negotiate.
- Typically for industrial development tundra oil company undertakes to pay a certain amount of money the community. But this is a drop in the sea of gold. Normally, the head of a hundred thousand kinds of pay, and he has already distributes the money among people. Plus undertake to provide fuel, sometimes "Buran", motors for boats, - says Habecha Yaungad. - In a word, who as a contract. And from the state tundra pay two thousand per person. But it's still a penny
In fact, the problem here is much deeper. "Indigenous people think that we always have them" - a phrase you can hear from the majority of Russian, especially those living in national villages. People complain that the Nenets provide housing, which Russian seeking for years. But everybody understands that without state support in the tundra, where reindeer kilogram take a hundred rubles, and a loaf of bread costs 30 kochuyuschemu population will not survive.
But they are trying to survive. According to the laws of their ancestors. That's just every year the town with their temptations is getting closer. A desire to be a part of it - more and more.