Indians - natives of North America

Judging by the title, the post of the indigenous population of North America - the facts, just the facts ... 735143b327.jpg



According to the US Census Bureau (US Census Bureau), in 2000 in the US there are approximately 1.8 million. Thoroughbred Indians. The 2000 census for the first time in US history, made it possible to specify a "mixed" origin of the population. As a result, it became clear that another 2.9 million. Americans consider themselves Indians to a greater or lesser extent (ie, one or more of their immediate ancestors were Indians). The largest Indian tribes now: Cherokee (about 302.5 thousand. "Purebred" Native Americans), Navajo (276.7 thous.), Sioux (113 thousand.) And Chippewa (almost 111 thousand.). For comparison, the US population in 2000 was about 290 million. People.

The census also showed that the Indians - "young" people (or rather, people). The average Indian - 29 years old, the average American - 35. 33% of Indians - younger than 18 years. For comparison, in 2000, this age group were 26% of Americans. At the same time, fewer Indians live to old age. 65-year-old crossed the mark of 5.6% of the US population Redskins, in the whole country, the figure is 12.4% .c4624942ae.jpg

Classification of Indian tribes made as to ethnic groups and linguistic families. Inexperienced person easy to get lost in such a classification, so will show the most striking and well-known Indian tribes people ... 4bc3553f4a.jpg

Apaches.

Most southern Athabascan. In the 15th - 16th centuries moved from the north to the southern plains and the South-West.

Immediate family members of the Apaches - Navajo.

Western Apache or koyotero include San Carlos, White Mountain, Seebeck and Tonto,

their neighbors Chiricahua divided into Chokon, Nendaz, bedonkoe and mimbreno (the latter two have a common name or Warm Springs Mogollon).

Mescalero Apaches and the Jicarilla Apache closer in culture to the Indians of the steppes, and Plains Apache and Lipan were typical steppe nomads - buffalo hunters. Chiricahua longest resisted the US Army, and ended the war, which lasted 25 years, in 1886, when all the Indians were moved to reservations.

Among the famous Apache chief - Mangas Colorado, Cochise, Victorio, Yeh, Nayche, Dzheron2a3e52807a.jpg

South-Aztecan family.

Kiowa - Comanche Shoshoni Utah Hopii others.

Kiowa.

A small but warlike tribe of nomads of the south of the Great Plains. The language belongs to the group of stalling.

As an independent unit within the tribe consisted Plains Apache speaking Athabaskan language. Together with the Comanches, these tribes were powerful alliance of southern steppes (Oklahoma, Texas), who fought with many surrounding Indians and Mexicans. In the 1870s had a strong resistance to the US Army.

All warriors in the tribe numbered about 200 people. Ten of them were brave society Kaitsenko - military elite, never retreat before the enemy.

The most prominent leaders of the Kiowas - Dohasan, Sitting Bear, Satanta, Lone Wolf, kicked Bird, Big Derevo.Atapaski. 5d9a808e4d.jpg

The Iroquois.

Cayuga - Oneida Onondaga Mohawk Seneca Tuscarora Huron Erie Mohawk Cherokee and others.

Cayuga - people gveugvehono (guyokono), which translates in different ways, but in general, "the people living there, where the boats pulled to the shore" (or "large swamp people"). Their name / "position" in the League - 'men of great tube'.

Mohawk - kahniankahagen (ganiengehaka), "the people of Flint." In League - 'Keepers of the Eastern Door'.

Oneida - onayotekaono (onayotaka), "people standing stone».

Onondaga - onundagaono, "the people of the hills." "Position" in the League - 'Flame Keeper' and 'wampum keepers'.

Seneca - nundavaono (onondavaga), "the great people of the hills." In League - 'keepers of the western door'.

Tuscarora - ska-ru-D "people wearing shirts." Tuscarora joined the League in 1714. Tuscarora had no right to vote in the League.

The name 'Iroquois' - a distorted reading of French spelling of the word 'ierokva', the origin of which there are two versions, one translates this word as Iroquois 'smoke', the characteristic customs of these peoples, and the other as a converted French Algonquian 'black snake'. Sami Iroquois call themselves' Haudenosaunee '-' people of long houses' or 'ongvehoveh' - 'the real thing, or the first lyudi'.Irokezy.

This word is derived from the Algonquian Iroko - Vipera, the French came to be called union of the five tribes,

which themselves and called - five nations, and more - people long doma.e47ec14eda.gif

Five tribes it - Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida and Mohawk.

Later in the Union were adopted by the Iroquois Tuscarora, and Iroquois began six nations.

The Iroquois lived in long houses constructions of wooden poles, covered bark, which reaches a length of 30 - 40 meters or more with a width of 7 - 10 m.

A house occupied by several families related through the female line.

In addition to hunting, an important place in the economy of the Iroquois engaged in farming - they grew corn, squash, beans, sunflowers, watermelons, tobacco.

The village was surrounded by a palisade of logs, which served as a defense in case of enemy attack.

Sami people long house were also very warlike and raided all the surrounding tribes - the Mohicans, Delaware, Algonquin, Montagnais, Miami, Catawba, Huron, suskvehanna, Erie, Ottawa and others.

As a result, the Iroquois conquered a huge area, many times greater than their native territory located to the south and east of Lake Ontario.

The power and influence of the League were huge, and the European powers - Britain and France, and later the United States fought among themselves for the North American land, the Iroquois tried to use as military allies.

But in the end, weakened by endless wars League began to lose its power,

and Iroquois tribes were divided and scattered throughout the United States and Canada, reservations.

Who are the best builders of the Iroquois-climber, and many famous American skyscraper built with their own hands.

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Muskogi.

Seminoles. Chickasaw Creek Natchi others.

Seminoles.

This tribe was formed in the late 18th century from the tribe of the cries, moved to Florida,

where by the time the local population was virtually wiped out.

Seminoles white rendered desperate resistance to the invaders, but as a result of three Seminole War (1817 - 1818, 1835 - 1842 and 1855 - 1858 gg.) 6 thousand. Indians in Florida have less than 200 people.

The rest were either destroyed or sent to Indian Territory.

Just how serious opponent thought Seminole Americans, said the fact that during the Second Seminole War, the number of federal troops was doubled.

Among the famous Seminole chiefs - Micanopy, Billy bowlegged, Wild Cat, Osceola.

Now the Seminoles live in Oklahoma and three reservations in Florida.

Part of the Florida Seminole speaks a different language (hitchiti) and is considered a separate tribe mikasuki.7ebba4a3fa.jpg

Sioux.

Assiniboine Dakota Mandan Vinebago Hidatsai Crowe et al.

Sioux.

Actually Sioux - a seven dakotskih tribes.

Teton - the general name of seven related Sioux tribes:

Oglala, Brule, hankpapa, minnikonzhu, sansarki, uhenopa Blackfeet and Sioux.

During the XIX century at Oglala clans were the following:

Fierce Faces - Iteshicha (Bad Faces Red Cloud),

Minissha - Red Water, Oyyukhpe - push in the Party Hunkpatila, Chillon - Sharp-tailed ptarmigan, Kiyyuksa - Those who violate their own laws, True Oglala, Okandanda, Old Neck Necklace, Short Hair, Night Clouds, Uazhhazhha, Heart Spirit.

Their closest relatives - Assiniboine.

Cousins ​​can assume siuyazychnyh Indians Missouri (Mandan Hidatsa, the Crow),

tribes groups dhegia (Omaha, Ponca, Osage, Kansa, ALCO) and Cheever (GTR, Missouri, Iowa, Winnebago).

And quite distant relatives - now extinct tribes siuyazychnye East and South-East:

Catawba, saponite, tutelo, Hainaut, okanichi, CRF, Biloxi and others. 375294b49f.jpg

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November 20, 1969 eighty Indians from the organization "The Indians of all tribes" seized Alcatraz Island - 12 acres of land in the San Francisco Bay, where there used to be a federal prison. Hoping to draw attention to the dramatic situation of American Indians, members of the "all nations," declared that the island, under the terms of the old contract with the Sioux, is thrown federal land (Alcatraz was closed in 1963), and therefore must return to the Indians. "The fact that we regain the Alcatraz prison-- symbolic - said John Trudell, one of the leaders of this action. - We Indians have always been prisoners in their own land. " Intending to open on the island of Indian Cultural Center, the Council "of all tribes" offered to appease angry federal government by buying their island "glass beads and red cloth cost $ 24." Eighteen months later, the federal government failed to expel the Indians from Alcatraz, but they failed to quell the growing resistance among eight hundred thousandth Indian naseleniya.63184208ce.jpg

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When in the 1960s. NASA astronauts preparing for flight to the Moon, some training carried out in the Arizona desert in the territories of the Navajo Indian Reservation. One day, an old Indian with his son grazed sheep and came across one such team. The old man, who spoke only Navajo, asked by his son, who said in English: "What do these people have in the big white dress?" One member of the escort team told him that they practiced for a flight to Lunu.Starik asked if he can send them a message to the moon.

NASA officials smelled good publicity, and quickly agreed. They gave the old man a tape recorder, and he wrote a short message in the language navaho.Syn refused to translate it into English.

Later, representatives from NASA gave a listen to the message to other Navajos. They all laughed, but none of them did not want to translate the message of the old man in English, referring to the difficulty of translating.

Finally, representatives from NASA turned to a well-known professor of linguistics, a specialist in Indian languages. He listened to the message, laughed and translated: "Moon brothers, watch these people in both eyes - they came away your land!"

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Gojko Mitic (Serbia. Goјko Mitiћ) - Yugoslav-Serbian film actor, director and stuntman, became famous as a performer roles Indians. Total played in 15 movies, where he had to perform the role of Chingachgook and others.

In 1960 he made his debut in a movie stuntman in the English film "Lancelot and Queen", then an extra in the film series about Winnetou - adaptations of literary works of Karl May. In 1966 he moved to East Berlin, filmed at the studio DEFA starring Indians. In the same year he published the film "The Sons of Great Bear", where Gojko Mitic starred Indian chief. The main role Mitic chose the film's director Josef Mach. The film was a great success among the younger generation.

In 1967, in the wake of the success of the last film goes "Chingachgook - The Great Snake", which played the role of Chingachgook Mitic. As the scenario-based film was Fenimore Cooper novel "Deerslayer". A year later, the film was purchased for distribution in the USSR, and Gojko Mitic has acquired great fame is having success, mainly among adolescents. One such film, titled "Tekumze", was filmed in the Soviet Union, in the Crimea, near Mount Demerdzhi. Another - "Ulzana" - in the area of ​​Samarkand.

Now, during the information boom, movie about Indians with Gojko Mitic look a bit dull, but in Soviet times it was a revelation ... And every little bit the boy knew that "Apache - it's cool, and Huron - not so ..". As the GDR and the USSR, now - all in the past ... 3f18e92c29.jpg

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In this video ipolzovat fragment movie with Gojko Mitic (not as an advertisement) for advertising earrings, tomahawks (not for publicity) ...

Next video - for the female population Anuba, I will not wait for March 8 ...

Women, it seems to me, like to consider photo - romance, damn ...

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Civilization Indians, their culture had a significant impact on the culture of "white people". Hairstyle "mohawk" - one of such influence ...

Iroquois - hairstyle popular in the punk culture. Borrowed from Indian culture and is named after one of the tribal groups. In English, more commonly known as the mohawk (Mohawk - self one of the Iroquois tribes) in England also mohican (Mohican). In the ideology of punk mohawk is a symbol of freedom. Freedom from society, stereotypes and other people's opinions, freedom compared to the other.

Iroquois mainly is of three types: American (2 finger widths), Siberian (4 finger widths) and Gothic (wide: hair shaved off only at the temples). Mohawk also practiced without stacking, that is "lying».

In the world of punk rock mohawk gained popularity after he started wearing «Wattie» and other members of «Exploited». In the early '80s, the Iroquois were very popular. Just look old concert recordings punk grupp.964013c5b7.jpg

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Few people know that in Russia there are groups of people fans of Indian civilization, the so-called Indianists. An introduction to Indian culture occurs not only at the level of books, but also at the level of communication in nature, a joint study of the life and folk traditions of the Indians.

Currently in St. Petersburg is home to around 200 indeanistov. New frontiers hinder contact with indeanistov near abroad, but, despite the obstacles, every summer they gather near the village Tolmachiovo Luga District of Leningrad oblasti.bc13f60018.jpg

Indeanistov chooses Indian tribe, the most lovely and close it. It is especially hard studying its history, mythology, customs, language, takes its basic color symbolism. There are among indeanistov followers tribes Ojibwe, Lakota, Cree, ponies and others. But powwow there is no division into tribes, the choice of the tribe - a private matter.

Have no indeanistov and nothing like the strict organization. The main issues addressed by the Board of Elders of life, but it is not an official body and its decisions are not compulsory. Elders are veterans Indianist movement, standing at its source. But Elder - this is not an honorable position, the elders are not elected, they become more wise and experienced. The elders decide when and where will powwow, enipi.2306071e31.jpg

How is the powwow in Russia.

Powwow lasts 1-2 weeks. Ready for it all year, it's a big celebration. Sew tipi (cone-shaped canvas dwelling Indians), suits, moccasins, hats, learning to dance. In the camp there is no general regime of mandatory events that we do not need no urging. At the same time on the powwow has accepted rules, so that order is maintained and no one does not interfere with each other.

Enipeas.

This is the name of the Indians purification rite. Cleared of all that hinders modern man to connect with the natural world. To do this, collect stones and heats them. Then put on top of the coated polyethylene tent in which participants sit in a circle ritual. However, many pronounce any words or prayers, including Christian. Between them is embarking Indian pipe, stuffed with a mixture of tobacco and various plants, such as sage, willow bark, dogwood, bison. Ritual tube has miroustroitelnye value for the Indians.

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Russia has not only fans of the Indian way of life, but there is now an Indian tribe - the so-called itelmeny.Itelmeny - small people. Purebred Itelmens there are about 1,500 people. Russian Indians - disappearing ethnic group, which we can all lose, and not having poznat.Tem Still, if fly nine hours on a plane from Moscow to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, then ten o'clock to go by car to the village of Esso, then one and a half hours to get to helicopter to the village of Ust-Khairyuzovo and then be shaken for about forty minutes in the car along the coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk at low tide, and in winter by snowmobile or snow crust dog sledding, you will go to the national settlement Kovran, a visit to a real Indians Russia - itelmenam.2564e5ecb2.jpg

Scientists have shown that the closest family roots in Itelmen with Tlingit Indians. The latter live in Alaska.

Both tribes common God - crows Kutkh - the creator of the earth and all life on it. Also Itelmens much in common with another famous Navajo.

Visits our Itelmens in the US and Canada confirmed a commonality with foreign tribes tribal legends, totems, rituals and dances. Russian Indians with their incendiary songs and fiery dances were met, as their own, as relatives.

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Sayings, aphorisms Indian naroda8f20308201.gif

When the last tree is cut down, when the last river poisoned will be when the last bird is caught, - only then will you realize that money can not est.fc633d0a5d.gif

Even your silence may be part molitvy.0e8800ebb2.gif

Do not walk behind me - I may not lead you. Do not walk ahead of me - I may not follow you. Go near, and we are one tselym.af54675c06.gif


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