Entrance to the hopper is a three-storey building, made in typical Stalinist architecture. In other words, we have a piece of concrete with windows. House performs two functions: camouflage and defense. Concrete should serve as an additional protection during a nuclear attack. In the house I lived a special guard, whose task was imitation of normal civilian life. Daily guys lit in the windows of light, walking peacefully and mustache is not blowing. And all this, that the enemy was not able to guess the location of the bunker.
15 photos under the cut via kitubijca
Entrance to the hopper through several multi-ton doors that are opened by a special mechanism. Doors are able to keep a nuclear explosion of high power. And after these colossus slammed shut behind us, the guide talked about the road ahead in the minus 18 floors. I had to go, nowhere to go.
Floors in a normal "Khrushchev," and the depth of the silo is 65 meters. This is not my last comparison with the "Khrushchev", for clarity, I have a few more times I will remember peeped at the French architects and temporarily erected to house Soviet man. After an uneasy descent (if I knew that in the end will have to climb back ...) the spiral staircase, we were near the entrance.
Then it sets the Soviet era machine with soda, apparently not working. During the Cold War, such devices were located around the hopper, then this unbearable heat prevailed, and employees had to actively fight against thirst. There are also lockers for these certificates employees bunker. Enduring these certificates outside of the building is not allowed, this was the secret facility. Thus, the walls of the bunker, Ivan Ivanovich could not be less than the Colonel, and the worldly life becomes just a janitor.
To understand why these buildings were built and continue our tour of the bunker on, you need to go a little further into the history of the Cold War.
June 22, 1941, German troops invaded the Soviet Union. These events led to great changes in the world political scene. In those days, Britain and America started talking about the willingness to help of the Soviet Union. Thus, in the same ranks against Hitler appeared: the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States. It was the formation of the anti-Hitler coalition.
After the victorious end of the war the Soviet Union began to play a major role on the world stage. However, the liberation of the European countries will inevitably fall into the zone of Soviet influence. Truman and Churchill could not prevent the spread of communism in Europe. Resist the invincible might of the Red Army could only new superweapon. It all began in June 1945 at the Potsdam Conference, the Allies captured kroili Germany and defines the scope of the post-war cooperation. It was at Potsdam President receives a first successful test of a nuclear warhead. This fact does not serve as a confidence-building between the Soviet Union and the United States. America was the only nuclear power in the world and gained superiority to dictate their terms. Testing ground for acts of intimidation Americans chose Japan, which is still in a state of war. 6 August 1945 on Hiroshima atomic bomb was dropped "Little Boy" power of 15 kilotons. And three days later on Nagasaki overthrew uranium "Fat Man", which claimed the lives of 42 thousand civilians and left 40,000 wounded.
The Soviet Union was concerned about the nuclear monopoly of America. Stalin demands from Kurchatov to create its own nuclear bomb. Meanwhile, Americans continued to test new nuclear weapons, surpassing each other in power. In 1949, the Soviet Union is testing nuclear charge capacity of 27 kilotons, so the Soviet Union caught up with the Americans. August 12, 1953 in Semipalatinsk was tested the first hydrogen bomb. The bomb reached 400 kilotons. The nuclear arms race gave strong development of the space industry. It was developed intercontinental nuclear warheads. The battle for space. On Earth orbit was launched the first artificial Earth satellite.
In the skies over the Soviet Union repeatedly appears reconnaissance aircraft U-2, which is shooting secret facilities. May 1, 1960 a rocket Grushin was interrupted by the flight of such an aircraft. At a meeting in Paris Nikita Khrushchev sharply enough expressed on US reconnaissance planes. Statements go towards foreign journalists, condemning the action of the Union. Nikita always had harsh words, enough to recall his "gruel", was made in June 1959. Although his remarks unfounded will not name, the morning of 30 October 1961, in the New Earth has been tested the most powerful weapon ever created by man. The bomb exploded at an altitude of 4000 meters, the ball of hot plasma reaches a diameter of 10 kilometers. As long as the reaction balloon release energy equal to 1% of the power of the sun. Within a radius of 50 kilometers oplavilas land, and the area of destruction was about 400 kilometers. The blast wave circled the globe three times. Probably it was Khrushchev "gruel." In arsenal of bombs was not, it was made only a single instance of intimidation of other countries.
On the brink of disaster the world could put the "Cuban Missile Crisis", which nearly ended the third world war. January 1, 1959 the Revolution triumphed in Cuba, headed by Fidel Castro. The new government began the war with a decisive American influence on the island. There was the fear of an armed US invasion. May 24, 1962 adopted a decision to establish a group of Soviet troops in Cuba, which included missile division of five missile regiments. Thus, in the USSR there was the possibility of sudden nuclear attack on the United States. In October 1962, the world stood on the brink of a third world war. October 22 evening, US President John F. Kennedy addressed an appeal to the American people. Any launch missiles from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union of the Americas, which would entail a military response.
Peak "Cuban Missile Crisis" took place in the 27 th day, when once again the rocket Grushin was shot down spy plane U-2. Command to defeat the purpose of the sanctions made without Moscow. By order of the head of the air defense in Cuba. The situation gets out of control, Khrushchev knew that without his knowledge could also launch a nuclear missile. October 28 meeting of the Politburo, Khrushchev went to the world. The Americans have promised in return for the withdrawal of nuclear weapons from Cuba not to attack the Liberty Island. Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed to the elimination of nuclear medium-range weapons. In the future, the arms race is beginning to restrain both sides started to impose restrictions on the accumulation of weapons. A ban on nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, outer space and under water.
Back in the early 50's by order of the Soviet government began to form structures that can protect important control centers. In 1965, special facilities were put into operation. In 1985 the facility underwent a complete dismantling and has been completely redesigned. The works were carried out in the bunker until 1990, then the funding has ceased.
The top-secret facility is designed as a backup command post long-range aviation (GA-42). The area of the bunker was more than 7 thousand square meters. The corridors of the bunker remind the subway tunnel - it is no coincidence metrostroevtsy built facility. The individual elements as well remind the subway station.
The tunnels of the complex are connected by two strokes with the Moscow metro - station "Taganskaya" Circle Line subway. The first move was used to supply the object and leads to the tunnel between the metro stations "Kurskaya" and "Taganskaya". The second leads directly to the station "Taganskaya Ring" in the technical premises. In the bunker constantly hear how somewhere near passing subway train. Most recently, the passages in the subway tunnels were open, and visitors were allowed to look at the passing train. Today, in accordance with the security measures, all moves are "frozen."
24 hours on the subject is a change of technical staff and military personnel, which is maintaining an communication equipment and life support systems. In the case of alarm and during the exercise down to the object four shifts, which could carry combat duty and to ensure the work of staff of long-range aviation. In addition to long-range aviation headquarters, the bunker worked many other institutions - the central telegraph office, a radio, geodetic laboratory. By the way, some time in the radio studio work famous Soviet announcer Levitan.
The bunker was previously tested in these nuclear explosions. Not in the center of Moscow, of course, and at the site in Semipalatinsk. There are numerous underground nuclear warheads tested engineering design, applied for the construction of the bunker. The cost of a few meters of the tunnel object is equal to the cost of construction of a typical "Khrushchev" and building costs of the whole object entirely equate to the cost of city infrastructure, designed for 60 thousand people.
The museum was a presentation of a post-apocalyptic novel "Metro 2033" the fantastic writer. Also held shooting the film "Contagion" and Nahapetova thriller "Smersh-XXI» Maximov. Episodes' Dyatlov Pass "also starred in the dungeons of the hopper. The developers of computer game «Red Alert 3" organized in a silo world premiere.
In 2006, the bunker was put up for auction, which was bought by a private company. After the overhaul is organized entertainment complex with a restaurant and a conference room. Regularly hosts a variety of gaming activities and excursions. December 21, 2012 (the so-called end of the world) tickets to a special event organized in the bunker, cost about 50 thousand rubles.