In the seventies of the last century, after the oil embargo of 1973, which caused wild inflation, Howard Ruff published a book "Hunger and survival in America" - has become a cult classic guide to survival in an emergency situation. From the book you can learn a lot of information, how and where to organize a shelter, how to survive a catastrophic global turmoil. A year after the publication of the directory Raff, 1975, course Saxon released the first issue of the newsletter The Survivor. The term "survivalist» (survivalist) was put into use.
What are survivalizma? This is a natural reaction of the human psyche to the crisis in society. He prepared the way for the decades of the Cold War between the superpowers, the witch-hunt, the arms race, the Cuban missile crisis. The destructiveness of the twentieth century gave rise to apocalyptic mood and the desire to prepare for the coming global changes in the world.
Want to survive? Invest in organizing shelters
Survivalist vital question: what to do now in order to survive tomorrow? At the dawn of survivalizma simple answers to this question satisfy adherents of the movement. Find a secluded spot for the organization of a fortified house, do a few caches in different places, to spend one fully paid for the purchase of gas lighters and matches to get a gun - is now commonplace, as they say, does not roll. Several decades expectations of the apocalypse (or PD, in the terminology of Russian survivalist, that is a big fucking) brought survivalistov to manic.
Severe US farmers are building underground bunkers reinforced concrete and steel, as well as cans of beef stew Belarusian buried in the forest survivalist Urals - even God does not remember them. The movement acquired the character of paranoia. How many rounds have always at itself? What if, in the absence of medical care to grab attack of appendicitis? On the latter point is one of the Russian representatives of the movement expressed so: "Somehow I pinned our bolnichku to declare style:" I do not need appendicitis, cut it to me on figs, well I do not need it to me, and everything! "Far away sent me ».
Survivalist warm thoughts when everyone will understand that the end of the world is inevitable that the investment had no gold or real estate, the game in the stock market is not worth it, then that survivalisty smile condescending smile omniscience - they have to be armed with matches and guns .
Time, make part of popular culture seekers
Survivalist waiting for the collapse of civilization, and preparing for it. Doomsday scenarios are many: a nuclear war, the Yellowstone volcano eruption, meteorite falling to Earth pole shift and other natural disasters, pandemics, energy crisis, and even the possibility of an attempt to recreate the conditions scientists of a black hole in the laboratory.
From the latter disaster, perhaps not even protect the bunker. But a nuclear explosion, radiation, chemical weapons, solar activity, hurricanes and other emergencies reinforced underground shelter, say experts, is able to protect.
Bunker - straw for the panic-stricken humanity to future disasters and hundreds of millions of dollars earned on people's fears by companies that are engaged in the construction of underground facilities. Shelters were widely used during the First and Second World Wars - they housed command centers, ammunition dumps and food, communication centers and other military facilities. But in the era of the Cold War we began to build not just a huge and incredible scale of refuge.
Some of the known shelters erected at that time, similar to underground cities. One of the world's largest government bunker was built in America in 1953. It Raven Rock (Site R), in Pennsylvania, a few miles from the suburban residence of US presidents Camp David. A huge underground complex is located on 650 acres of land in the mountains designed in 1948 for the protection of officials of the military departments and the federal government in emergency situations. Raven Rock carved into the rock, and is designed so that can withstand a direct hit in the rock of the atomic bomb. Refuge area of 700 a thousand of square meters. ft able to accommodate about three thousand people. During the Cold War there constantly were on watch 350 professionals.
This action bunker that when an emergency situation will take over the management of the country and US troops. Today, Raven Rock is located Agency for Defence Information Systems (Defense Information Systems Agency, DISA) and tactical centers of the Air and Naval forces of the USA.
The Cold War still exaggerated - the enemy, fear, real threat and the means of salvation. Throughout the residents began to organize the state asylum appeal after President John F. Kennedy in 1961, at the height of the Cuban missile crisis, to show awareness and take care of their own personal safety. It was then that America has become a refuge not just a symbol of the time, but a part of everyday culture - huge number of ordinary Americans to build a kind of bunker in the backyard.
Nothing personal, just business
Today, survival - it's a business. Once the movement was born, having the taste of mystery and elitism, it has degenerated into a banal earning money on unfulfilled apocalyptic forecasts and paranoid fear: what if it's really going to happen? Advertising survivalist gear online shops selling equipment for survivalistov, companies building private bunkers. BP - it is not scary. It has transformed into a parody of itself. Toys, candy wrapper, blestyashki, smiling Mickey Mouse. This commerce, business nizvodyaschy survivalizma philosophy (of course, no different intellectual brilliance, but more or less distinctive) ability to prepare for weekly hikes.
"Maybe it's specially made? - Anxious, like a true paranoid survivalist true - maybe it's a conspiracy World Government? When we calm down, we perceive everything as a joke - then that it happened. We all die, and they are prepared and arranged it all, survive ».
Who knows what it really is?
Four feet under
Construction of bunkers in America - the epidemic of our time. Today, throughout the world run companies involved in the construction of underground shelters for individuals, but especially a lot of them in the United States. Bunkeromanii pandemic swept the states in the 60-ies of XX century. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Cold War, the construction of shelters began to decline. But after 11 September 2001, the newly resumed. And the more acutely aware of the world crisis, the more progressed the extinct disease was time.
The American company NorthWest Shelter Systems, which specializes in the construction of silos for private families there since 1990. The fact that for the construction of shelters in the United States need to get permission of the Pentagon, does not stop people - the number of customers the company is growing year by year. NorthWest Shelter Systems works exclusively in North America. In addition to direct construction of bunkers, the company has been supplying air filtration systems, explosion-proof doors and hatches, even equipping wine cellars underground - where the same without them, the nuclear winter?
The average bunker company NorthWest Shelter Systems made of steel and concrete, wall thickness - about eight inches. The individual components of the bunker - doors and hatches, air cleaning system - all designed to withstand a nuclear explosion, toxic effects of radiation and biochemical weapons. Needless refuge shipped by land on four feet.
Shelters are built, usually in sparsely populated areas. The cost depends on the hopper area, the materials used and the degree of protection, the price range from $ 1.980.000 to 8.000.000 $.
Another American company Radius Engineering, the existing more than 30 years, offers a more economical solution - isolated refuge of structural fiberglass. Bunkers, projected by the company, streamlined standard, no flat walls, making them, according to the developers, the more resistant to external pressure. Structures are made in the factory and then delivered by truck to the customer and installed. Hatch is flush with the surface of the earth, is impossible to determine the whereabouts of asylum.
Radius Engineering Silos are in demand anywhere in the country, for the installation of these relatively small shelters pledged without foundation, does not require permission from the US Department of Defense. But while customers agree not to resell the construction and transport outside the United States without an export license from the US Department of Defense. According to the company, made its bunkers are able to serve more than 250 years. The cost of the cheapest of designs - from $ 130 thousand, a large underground shelters, equipped with the latest technology all the amenities, including the conditions for growing plants hydroponically, cost about $ 1090 000.
Company Hardened Shelters since 1991 working for wealthy Americans, builds a bomb shelter, storm shelter and safe room, the so-called safe rooms - fortified rooms in private American homes or commercial residences, providing a safe shelter in the case of intruders or cataclysm - an earthquake, a tornado, and etc. These rooms are equipped with means of communication with the outside world. Their main difference from traditional shelters - small footprint.
One of the recent projects Hardened Shelters - a huge silo in the Adirondack Mountains, in the northeast of the State of New York, accommodation for 100 people. Realtors realize the fortified places in the underground as condominium apartments that will be useful after the apocalypse. The project cost $ 90 million.
Firm F-5s Storm & Fallout Shelters (Louisiana) manufactures and sells all states seekers with ventilation systems equipped with filters from Switzerland. There are such cover, unless you consider the installation of a thousand of US $ 8 to $ 20 thousand - the price depends on the configuration.
"Tents for survival" trading organizations Harden Structures (Virginia). Tents, says the manufacturer, save in case of biological, chemical and even nuclear threat. Is it worth saving a dubious an average of 7, 5 thousand dollars.
The company 20th Century Castles LLC (Kansas) is specialized in the reorganization of underground missile bases in bunkers at wealthy private estates. Atlas-F, a former military base in the state of New York, has been redesigned by experts of the company for 1, $ 7 million in a cottage in the mountains. Atlas-E in Vamego, once a military facility in the state of Kansas, was reorganized into underground refuge area of 1400 square meters. m. to place in it may be ten people. The cost of the bunker - 1, 2 million $.
Demand stimulates offer. Some private companies selling salvation from the end of the world in recent years have increased sales by nearly 500%.
End of an era
Survivalist movement - a phenomenon, of course, some crazy. Hard-nosed loner for years add up to a garage canned condensed milk and ammunition, the venerable fathers in Idaho, fitted next to the house a bunker on the whole family, the fanatics of the religious sects, waiting for the apocalypse from day to day, pitching, debilitating body workouts to start a decisive battle with the world's governments. All of them will not be considered in any metropolis bustling crowd, nor in the vast countryside. But, on the other hand, the boundaries of mental standards are not defined, all of us in his own answer to the challenges of the time.
People living at the turn of eras, always perceived as the time the last days of mankind. And time challenges us - clearly alluding to the fact that the world as we know it is coming to an end. He left 10 years - 20, no more.
The Middle Ages ended and the era of great geographical discoveries, displacement of spheres of influence, widespread planting of European values. New time - a succession of revolutions, capitalist and socialist, the First World War, the massive use of chemical weapons, the redistribution of the world, in which there were two points of influence - the US and the USSR. Our era of non-renewable energy resources will end when scientific progress to reach the degree of technological singularity - the point of no return back to the simple and clear for most of the world, a point where the technological changes in science become so swift and unthinkable complex that will cease to be available understanding of the average inhabitant of the earth. This moment is not far off, the invention of artificial intelligence and technological singularity - our future. Will there bunker, and whether to hide this? That's life, a simple life at the turn of epochs.