Speed ​​of light

0. received many thanks from starving for Science population of this country, we decided to continue the educational program for those who as a child dreamed of becoming a scientist, but somehow it did not happen. In spite of all professionals and candidates, violating every single methodology and the rules of good scientific text, we write a simple language about the discoveries of modern (and not so) and science are making this random images from the Internet.
Today we talk about the speed of light, why it is a constant, why all the "run" with this speed and surprised thereof, and what is going on.

It will be 11 posts.






1. In fact, the speed of light began to try to measure a long time ago. All there Kepler and others considered that the speed of light is infinite, and Galileo, for example, believed that the speed can be defined, but it is difficult because it is very large.
Rights have been Galileo and his ilk. In the 17th century someone Roemer inaccurately calculated the speed of light when observed eclipses of Jupiter's moons. Well and further scientific and technological progress finally everything in its place, and it turned out that the speed of light is about 300 000 kilometers per second.




2. But what is so in this sense? Why is speed so important? The speed of my lisaped also possible to calculate, but no one there on it is not thinking about eternity and the structure of the universe.

But the catch is that the speed of light is always equal to 300 000 kilometers per second.
From my own experience in the travel lisaped, imagine the situation: you are with a friend riding a bicycle: your friend is a little faster, and you are a little slower. Assume at speeds of 20 and 15 km / h, respectively. And if you're moving at its own speed, decide to measure (somehow) the speed of other, you evaluate that your friend is moving relative to you at a speed of 5 km / h.

Well, it's simple rules of addition of speeds. Here, I hope, is clear. If you increase the speed to 20 km / h and catch up each other, then you respect your friend will have a rate of zero.

It logically follows from the experience. Speed ​​motor boat which is moving with the flow as the sum of the own speed boats and flow rate of the river.




3. Now try to do the same trick with the light. Your friend suddenly annihilated and turned into a ray of light. You have decided to go after him and tried to do much. You accelerate to speed pretty close to the speed of light. And purely for fun, so to speak from a scientific curiosity, we decided to also measure the speed of your former friend. Of course, you are sure to get a solution equal to the speed of light, less your own speed.

And here you will Fail. Settlement and experimental way, you find out that the relative speed of your friend's radiation is still 300 000 m / s. From whatever speed you personally did not move, regardless of the direction, the parallel movement of the light towards the light, perpendicular, etc. - The velocity of light is always equal to 300 000 m / sec.

For the first time here this nestykovochka noticed at the beginning of the XX century a couple of scientists Michelson and Morley.




4. The set of tests later confirmed that it does not measure the speed of light, it is at all times equal to its relative motion of a constant value. Many people still refuse to believe it, and charlatans of science pushes the refutation of the theory of constancy of the speed of light. Until 1905, no one could explain why the speed of light does not want to be a relative until he came Einstein and everything is not explained.




5. The speed of light, as it turned out, we were pleased with several other sudden gags. This we have already told Einstein.

The fact that our speed greater than the slower clock we go. Time slows down with increasing speed. If you think that this is the theoretical and mathematical jokes that have no real confirmation that you are stuck in the Middle Ages.

Alas, the real experiments were carried out in the last century. We took a couple of hours of highly accurate, showing the same time. One copy of the hours taken on board the jet, and the second clock remained on the ground. The first watch at high speed a couple of times around the world. And then we checked the time. Watch from behind the aircraft.



6. And the closer one moves to the speed of light, the slower it goes the clock (he-he does not notice it and believes that his watch is right, but it's fun theory of relativity, we do not talk about them).

Thus, if someone with a clock accelerated to the speed of light, time for him to stop. As physicists say: the clock on the photons do not go.
And if it was possible to exceed the speed of light, the math tells us that in this case the time goes in the opposite direction. It's one of the reasons for the impossibility of superluminal speeds - broken the causal link, you know. You accelerate to a speed of 400 000 km / s and proved in the past ....



7. But to accelerate to the speed of light, we prevent more serious reasons than the time dilation. Anything that has mass can not fly at the speed of light. As soon as we begin to accelerate our mass begins to increase, and we are closer than the speed of light, the mass of our more. And the more energy is required to disperse us. When the values ​​are very close to the speed of light our mass becomes virtually infinite and therefore for our further acceleration we need infinite energy. In mathematics, it looks like a divide by zero.

And why the photon travels at the speed of light? - Ask inquisitive and savvy reader. Because it does not have mass (experts, are silent about the difference between the rest mass, inertial mass and other nuances - we simplify and do not load).



8. Yes, when those of your scatter electron colliders, even its tiny mass pulnut not be the speed of light.

I can not quote any textbook: "If the particle velocity is only 90 km / s less than the speed of light, its mass increases by 40 times. Powerful accelerator for electrons are able to disperse these particles to speeds that are less than the speed of light is only 35-50 m / s. The mass of the electron increases by approximately 2000 times. To this the electrons are confined in a circular orbit at him from the side of the magnetic field must act power 2,000 times greater than it would be possible to assume, without considering the dependence of mass on speed. »



9. Therefore, when you once again read that someone has discovered something greater than the speed of light, and now sells on the basis of this technology torsion drugs indigestion, remember this article.
The speed of light is an amazing physical quantity. If, for instance, the time multiplied by the speed of light (received "metric" value), then we get the very axis of the fourth four-dimensional space, which operates the whole theory of relativity: length, width, height and time. This is extremely airtight theory, but the conclusions of her chic and still hit the immature minds of young physicists.



10. However, modern physics does not deny the possibility of overcoming the speed of light. But all these assumptions relate not overcome the speed "on the forehead." We are talking about moving in space in less time than it will overcome the light. And that could be a result of any kind of undiscovered or unsolved interactions (such as quantum teleportation), or due to distortion prostrantstva (such hypothetical wormholes), or the existence of particles whose time goes in the opposite direction (such theoretical tachyons).

We have everything. It is written for professional bodies, hacking and spiritual ties of promoting the spread of B-gomerzkoy Contrary cognitive science programs in those of your REN-TV and TNT. Thank you for attention. To be continued, depending on the ratings of our articles.



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