A virtual journey through the most amazing geyser fields peace
In the north-east of the island of Kyushu is the capital of Japan's hot springs - the city of Beppu. The like sacred springs shelter on its territory around 2800 keys, fumaroles and mikrogeyzerov. Special attention of visitors attracted to the so-called "nine circles of hell" - nine unusual sources, each of which has a certain zest. For example, the source of "Shaved head» (Oniishibozu Jigoku) resembles a large boiling gray puddle.
The unusual name appeared due to blisters, reminiscent of the shaven heads of Buddhist monks. But perhaps the most famous source is considered Bloody Pond (Chinoike Jigoku). The unusual name appeared due to the red color of the pond, "colored" iron-containing minerals.
El Tatio, Chile
On Earth, there are five major geothermal areas with active geysers - four of them are in Iceland, New Zealand, United States and Kamchatka. The fifth valley of geysers hidden far and high. On the border of Chile with Bolivia at an altitude of 4320 meters above sea level in the Andes, is the most high geyser field in the world - El Tatio
About 80 geysers produce hot water from the depths of the earth, reaching a height of 75 cm to 6-7 m. The best time to visit the valley is considered the dawn. While, when the temperature reaches below zero marks, each source surrounded by a halo of particular pair.
In addition, sources begin to gush before dawn and stop their activity at nine o'clock in the morning.
The word "geyser" is derived from the Icelandic «geysa», meaning "rush." The first documented and well-known of the world geyser, Geysir (Geysir) was inaugurated in 1294. He gave the name of all the gushing springs and boiling in the world. Like most of the geysers of Iceland, Geysir is located in the southeastern part of the island, in the valley of Haukadalur (Haukadalur), which literally means 'hot springs garden.' Unfortunately, the legendary Geysir has lost its activity by an earthquake in 2000. But he was replaced Strokkur (Strokkur). It erupts every 5-10 minutes, throwing a jet of hot water to a height of 20 meters. Due to its restlessness he is considered one of the most active geysers in the world.
Home eruption geyser Strokkur:
Like any work of Strokkur geyser consists of several stages: filling the basin with water, man, release of hot water jets and resting stage:
In this picture, you can look in detail at all phases of the eruption.
The biggest and most powerful geyser in the world was in New Zealand - the height to which he raised the boiling water, sometimes reaching 400-450 meters. Waimangu Volcanic Rift Valley was active only 4 years, starting from 1900. In the photo from the book «Picturesque New Zealand» 1913 shown his impressive eruption:
It is noteworthy that the Icelandic geysers valley until recently was owned by director Sigurdur Jonasson, who gave it as a gift to the state. He bought this place in 1935. Previous owner of James Craig, a manufacturer of whiskey, and later Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, the sources of hedge fence and charge people with entrance fee. Today everyone can see the Icelandic geysers for free. By the way, just in the country, there are about 30 active geysers.
On the other side of the Pacific Ocean is a geyser, which erupts above all other active geyser in the world. This source is located in Yellowstone National Park (USA) and was named Steamer (Eng. Steamboat). He throws a jet of water up to 91 meters, which is almost equal to the height of the Statue of Liberty (93 m from the ground to the tip of the flame). His power is so great that the old pine trees growing nearby, were broken and washed away during one of the eruptions. By the way, it lasts 3 to 40 minutes. This geyser is unpredictable: it can wake up every four days, and can sleep up to 50 years, as it was in 1911. After a long lull, Steamboat woke up in 1961 - two years after one of the strongest earthquakes (magnitude 7, 5) have occurred in the area of Lake Hebgen. This year, July 31, the first geyser in the last eight years has been active.
Another popular geyser park, which is called the Old Faithful (eng. Old Faithful), erupts more frequently, and is renowned for its punctuality. Almost every 90 minutes, he throws out a jet of hot water to a height of over 40 meters:
Not less popular among the visitors enjoyed Grand Prismatic Spring (eng. Grand Prismatic Spring) - a boiling pot, which measures 91 meters long and 75 meters wide. He is known for his acid colors vary depending on the time of year due to living in a pond pigmented bacteria.
Incidentally, in Yellowstone National Park is a record number of geysers. On the area of 8983 square kilometers pulse about 3 thousands of hot springs, which represents two thirds of all the world's geysers.
Valley of Geysers, Russia
Valley of Geysers opened 7 years after the founding of the Kronotsky Nature Reserve. It happened in the summer of 1941 during an expedition Tatyana Ustinova and Anisifor Krupenina. The inaccessibility of the Valley of Geysers is not allowed to find a unique place earlier.
However, even today, not everyone can see the Kamchatka geysers. Firstly, you can get to them except by helicopter, and secondly, visiting only with permission of the administration. The Valley of Geysers is a gorge up to 4 km and 8 km long, along the bottom of which flows the river Geyser. Over 6 km from the mouth of the river canyon slopes "stuck" about 40 geysers, hot springs, mud pots and volcanoes.
The pride of the valley is considered the Giant Geyser. It erupts it is not often - it is a cycle of 5-7 hours. But when he wakes up, the jet of boiling water under pressure rises to 20-30 meters up, and clouds of steam can reach 300 meters!
Five years ago, 14 km from the Valley of Geysers geyser scored the young Russian. It was a surprise discovery for employees Kronotsky Nature Reserve, where 28 September 2008 a jet of boiling water rose up from the midst of the Kamchatka land one of the most active hydrothermal systems of Kamchatka valley Uzon. It is believed that prior to this point, hitting the source of "pulsing". Name the newly formed "fountain" allowed the tourists who at the time were near. If employees do not reserve time thought better of it, the geyser was received the name "Cool." In the end, he called it "cloudy". At first he erupts every 15-20 minutes in a year - about every 12 minutes in 2010 - an hour and forty minutes. Today, the jet of steam rises to 5-6 meters every 2-3 hours, but it depends on the weather cycle. Geyser responds to the strong winds and the temperature difference, which is reflected in its activity.