How many times have I heard: women are not inventors, they can not organize knowledge, their strength elsewhere - in the emotions, feelings and so on. D! Even reaching applications: women do not have the scientific insight - the basis of all insights. I propose to read a list of very interesting inventions made by almost all women - objects of our everyday life, time, and without them life would be less convenient. This is the first invention, which, by the way, tried to assign a man. Reading?
1. Paper bag.
America got a new trend - a paper bag when the cotton mill worker Margaret Knight invented a machine to create a flat bottom at the stake in 1868. Initially looked like paper bags envelopes, Charles Annan (Enna) saw the invention Margaret tried to patent the idea. Knight sued and won the case in 1871.
Lightweight, high-strength Kevlar - 5 times stronger than steel - can protect you from bullets. US DuPont chemist Stephanie Kwolek accidentally invented the material, while trying to improve (make it easier) fiber for reinforcing tires. The patent for the Kevlar she received in 1966.
This formula Kevlar:
3. Bin pedal.
Lillian Gilbreth improve the existing product, adding a small, brilliant detail. In the early 1900s she has designed for the inner shelf of the refrigerator, made more convenient can opener, and in fact, easier cleaning with a new trash can with pedal. Gilbreath and her husband Frank are the most well-known innovators on the part of the household. Two of their 12 children, Frank ml. Enestina with humor and wrote home about "sotrudnichesve" their parents in the book "Cheaper by the Dozen».
Elizabeth Magee created The Landlord's Game (from the English. «Landlord» - the landowner), to spread the economic theory Georgizma with the aim to tell (at the same time, and train) players about fraudulent land grabbing, the shortcomings and the need to rent the single land tax for landowners. Pretty interesting, is not it? Magee patented board game in 1904 and she also released it in 1906. About 30 years later, a man named Charles Darrow, a little remake the game, Parker Brothers resold it as "Monopoly." The company bought a patent Magee (the patent of the original game) for just $ 500 without paying royalties.
5. Windshield wipers ("wipers").
Drivers skeptical invention Mary Anderson first hand "wipers". They probably thought that go with the speed of turtles during rain or snow is safer than pulling a lever to clean the glass. Another woman inventor has created a computerized version of the janitors already in 1917, but its invention and has not been used. Eventually Mary Anderson patent has expired (in 1920). "Cadillac" was the first to install the windshield wipers on each machine, and then the rest of us followed suit.
6. Disposable diapers.
Marion Donovan is not particularly bother about changing diapers, after she patented a waterproof diaper in 1951. Waterproof diaper cover which was originally an ordinary shower curtain, first sold in only one store. Marion patent Keko Corporation sold for $ 1 million, and then a few years later created the disposable diapers. «Pampers» was born in 1961.
Patented in 1886, the first dishwasher combined the grid for dishes, hot water and pressurized water, in general, all that is in "Dishwashers" today. Inventor of Josephine Cochrane had not used it myself, but made life easier for many women.
8. "Liquid Paper" (Proof)
In the days when it was impossible to fix typo light touch «Backspace», secretary Bette Nesmith Graham used white tempera to remove the error. She has spent years perfecting his formula at home in the kitchen before she has patented his invention in 1958. «Gillette» company bought it in 1979 for 47.5 million dollars.
9. Children's cubes with letters.
The fact that children do not read books Adeline DT Whitney can be even better. But it's worth it to say thank you for the children's blocks with letters, patented in 1882.
10. Apgar score.
Life is a perpetual succession of surveys since birth. In 1952, an obstetrician-anesthesiologist Dr. Virginia Apgar start to check the status of newborns at 1 and 5 minutes after birth in order to reveal whether the children need special care. So there Apgar score. About 10 years later, the medical community has come up with a suitable backronym the word «Apgar» - Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration (appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration), in order to remember that the main indicators.
Once the connection between the ships was limited. It is carried out by means of colored flags, lights and loud screams. March Coston itself, of course, did not reach the creation of flares, she found a note that belonged to her husband. Koston for 10 years has worked with chemists and experimented in pyrotechnics to embody the idea of her husband's true. Coston produced for the Navy around 1200000 missiles that it provided them at cost. She had to pay $ 120,000, of which it has received only 15,000, and, as she wrote in her autobiography, the navy refused to pay her the full amount due to the fact that she was a woman.
12. The circular saw.
Weaver Tabitha Babbitt was the first who proposed to cut logs with a circular saw, as in the standard approach, sawn timber only when the saw is moving forward and in reverse motion with the log, nothing happened. In 1813, she created a prototype that attach to his spinning wheel. Since Babbitt belonged to Protestant religious sect shaker, then because of the commandments of the community refused to patent it.
13. Leash roulette.
New yorkersha Mary A. Deleni patented his first invention in 1908. She hooked a leash to the collar and thus could control their dogs. Quite by accident, a RS O'Connor patented the first "leash" 11 years later. Coincidence? Probably.
14. Underwater telescope and lamp.
It is very difficult to find detailed information about the inventor Sarah Mather. But her association telescope and lamp for submarines, already patented in 1845, speaks for itself.
15. The table-bed.
Table Bed Sarah Hood not only allowed to save space in small homes, but also to make this the first African-American woman, received a patent for his own invention in 1885. In the afternoon it was the desk, and at night it is a full bed. Wardrobe bed appeared somewhere after 15 years.
16. House with solar panels
House biophysics Telkes Mary was a real sunny home. In 1947, Hungarian scientists have invented a thermoelectric generator for heating homes in Dover. She came up with a wedge shape together with the architect Eleanor Raymond. Telkes used Glauber's salt, sodium salt of sulfuric acid to accumulate heat for the future of cloudy days. The system has experienced three winters.
In 1952, chemists Patsy Sherman was puzzled, so that when she spilled a fluorine rubber on laborantskuyu shoes, that he did not come down with it. Without changing the color of the shoes to repel water, oil and other liquids. Sherman and her colleague Samuel Smith was named this substance Skotchgard. Now it is small ... to protect our sofas.
18. Invisible Glass
Katherine Blodgett, the first woman scientist of General Electric, has found a way to transfer a thin monomolecular film on the surface of glass and metal in 1935. Result: non-glare glass and distortion. This gave rise to a new generation of cameras, microscopes, eyeglasses and more.
Women in computer science have a role model - Grace Hopper. Together with Howard Aiken, they created a 5-ton, about the size of the room, Mark I computer in 1944. She invented the compiler, which transformed the team's written in native code. This meant that now programmers could write code more easily and with fewer errors. In 1959, Hopper was in the team that developed COBOL, one of the first modern programming languages.