The first time in the history of RAS post its vice president, took the woman - Waist Habrieva. In her honor, we remember and other prominent women of science, who managed to dispel the persistent stereotype that the engines of progress - are men.
1. Astrolabe. Instrument for measuring the coordinates of celestial bodies invented female scientist, philosopher, astronomer and mathematician Hypatia of Alexandria in 370 BC. e.
2. Pink Champagne. Nicole Clicquot Barbier in 1808, has developed a technology "riddling", by which the champagne for the three months and gets rid of the sediment becomes crystal clear, has conceived a real success, greatly improving the quality of the drink.
3. Circular Saw. Tabitha Babbitt long watched the men employed saw cut logs special saw with two handles, for which you need to pull it back and forth. Although the load on the two men was the same, sawn timber only when the saw is moved forward and the reverse motion with the log, nothing happened. Babbitt thought it was a waste of energy, and in 1810 created a prototype of a circular saw, which later came to be used in the sawmill industry.
4. Periscope for submarines. With the help of this device, which is patented in 1845. Sarah Mather, determine the distance to the observed objects.
5. Canned meats. In 1873 at the World Exhibition in Vienna, our compatriot Nadezhda Kozhina demonstrated a method for preparing canned meat, for which he received a medal.
6. Dishwasher. Missed a few of his favorite dishes porcelain service, Josephine Cochrane has created a machine that just washes the dishes and beats. This happened in 1886, but only 40 years later, the device Cochrane was deemed necessary thing in the economy.
7. Bra. This part of women's wardrobe was patented Ermine Kadol in France in 1889. In her corset workshop Ms. Kadol put the product, known as «le Bien-Etre» («well-being"). Bra cups that supported two satin ribbons, and behind all this construction was attached to the corset.
8. snowblower. Cleanliness should be not only at home but also in the streets, decided usual secretary Cynthia Westover and gathered great-grandfather of modern machines to clean the streets of snow in 1892.
9. wipers. The first car windshield wipers for Mary Anderson invented in 1903. She felt sorry for the driver, who was forced during a blizzard constantly stopping the machine and shovel snow from the windshield.
10. The coffee filter. Thanks Merlitte Benz fans have a cup of coffee free from the tedious procedure for the preparation of the other portions, the third. The first filter cone coffee Merlita own twisted sheet of copybooks with 1909.
11. The muffler for the car. This acoustic filter invented El Dolores Jones v1917 year, after which the world around us was a bit quieter.
12. Diapers. Tired mom and housewife Marion Donovanv 1917 sat at the sewing machine with a shower curtain and, after several attempts, has created a waterproof cover for the diaper. In contrast, rubber sliders which were already on the market, the design does not cause chafing Donovan and stings baby skin.
13. Chocolate cookies. During the biscuits on the classic recipe Ruth Wakefield in 1930, went to the experiment, melt the chocolate bar and adding it to the dough. It was very tasty cookies, which later Ruth and her husband launched into production.
14. Wi-Fi. Hedy Lamarr received notoriety after starred in the Czech director Gustav Mahat, where for the first time in the history of cinema was explicit scenes of a sexual nature, for which Adolf Hitler called it an enemy of the Third Reich, and Pope Pius XII called good Catholics did not watch the movie. But Headey fascinated not just a movie. In 1941, she patented a secret means of communication, which dynamically changes the frequency of the broadcast, to make it harder to intercept the enemy. Since 1962, this device was used in the American torpedoes, and is now used in mobile communication and WiFi.
15. Body armor. In 1965, Dr. Stephanie Kwolek invented synthetic material Kevlar, which is five times stronger than steel. Her invention has saved thousands of lives police officers, firefighters and military. Kevlar has become the basis for bulletproof vests.
16. Silicone. Sculptor Patricia Billings has set itself the task of creating a cement additive, which would prevent its creation from destruction. After several years of experimentation, in 1970, she finally reached her goal, inventing an unbreakable plaster. Shortly thereafter, Billings found that the material was also surprisingly resistant to fire.