80 years ago, the Nazis staged provocation with the burning of the Reichstag.
The photo shows Nass Dora (nee Pettine), at the time she was only seven years old, but she remembers, as claimed by Hitler's dictatorship.
Dora Nass in his Berlin apartment
I was born in 1926 near the Potsdamer Platz, and lived on Kenigettsershtrasse. This street is located near the Wilhelmstrasse, where were all the ministries of the Third Reich and Hitler's own residence. I often come back and remember how it all began and how it ended. And it seems to me that it was not yesterday and not even five minutes ago, and is happening right now. I have very bad eyesight and hearing, but all that happened to me, to us, when Hitler came to power, and during the war, and in her last few months - I perfectly see and hear. But your face I can not see clearly, only fragments ... But my mind is still working. I hope (laughs).
Do you remember how you and your family react when Hitler came to power?
Do you know what was going on in Germany until 1933? Chaos, crisis, unemployment. On the streets - homeless. Many starved. Inflation is such that my mother to buy bread, took a bag of money. Not figuratively. A real little bag of banknotes. We thought that this horror will never end.
And then there is the man who stops the fall of Germany into the abyss. I remember very well, in which we were delighted with the early years of his reign. People work appeared to have been built roads, poverty went ...
And now, remembering our admiration, then, as we all and I with my girlfriends and friends praised our Fuehrer, as were willing to wait for hours of his speech, I would like to say this: you have to learn to recognize evil, until it became invincible. We did not work, and we paid the price! And forced to pay others.
My father died when I was eight months. Mother was quite apolitical. Our family had a restaurant in the center of Berlin. When we came into the restaurant officers CA, avoid them all. They behaved as an aggressive gang as proletarians, who gained power and want to make up for the years of slavery.
* On the night of November 9, 1938 in Germany began pogroms against the Jews ("Crystal Night"). About a hundred Jews were killed, 26 thousand. Sent to concentration camps.
In our school was not only the Nazis, some teachers did not join the party. Until November 9, 1938 * we did not feel how serious. But that morning, we saw that the stores that belonged to Jews, broken glass. And everywhere the inscription - "Jewish shop", "Do not buy from Jews" ... In the morning we realized that starts something bad. But none of us had no idea what the extent of the crime will be committed.
You see, there are so many resources to find out what is really going on. Then, almost no one had the phone rarely anyone had a radio, on TV and say nothing. A radio played Hitler and his ministers. And in the newspapers - they are. I read the newspaper every morning, because they were for customers in our restaurant. There's nothing written about the deportation and the Holocaust. And even my friends do not read newspapers ...
Of course, when our neighbors disappeared, we could not ignore this, but we were told that they were in the labor camp. About the death camp no one spoke. And if they said we did not believe ... The camp where people were killed? You do not say. You never know what the bloody and bizarre rumors do not happen in a war ...
Foreign policy came to us, and no one criticized the policies of Hitler. All shook his hand. Agreed on cooperation. What would we think?
Thousands peers Dora consisted in the National Socialist "League of German Girls»
You talked with friends about the war?
In 1939, we had no understanding of what war we untie. And even then, when the first refugees, we especially do not meditate - what does it all mean and where will. We had to feed them, clothe and provide shelter. And of course, we did not have imagined that the war will come to Berlin ... What can I say? Most people do not use the mind, as it was before.
Do you think that you, too, in his time did not use the mind?
(After a pause.) Yes, I have a lot thought, did not understand. Did not want to understand. And now, when I listen to recordings of Hitler's speeches - in some museum, for example - I always think: Oh my God, how strange and scary what he says, and because I'm young, was among those who stood in the balcony of his residence and screamed with delight ...
It is very difficult to resist the young man to the total flow, think what it all means, try to predict - what could happen? In ten years, I, like thousands of others of my peers, joined the "League of German Girls," which was created by the National Socialists. We had parties, caring for the elderly, traveled, traveled together on nature, we had holidays. The summer solstice, for example. Bonfires, songs, joint work for the benefit of the great German ... In short, we were organized on the same principle as that of the pioneers in the Soviet Union.
In my class learned boys and girls whose parents were Communists or Social Democrats. They forbade their children to take part in the Nazi holidays. And my brother was in the Hitler Youth little boss. And he said: If someone wants our organization, please - if not, we will not make. But there were other little Fuhrer, who said, who is not with us is against us. And they were very aggressive to those who refused to participate in a common cause.
Pastors in uniform
My girlfriend Helga lived right on the Wilhelmstrasse. This street often went car Hitler, accompanied by five cars. And once it came under the wheels of a toy car Fuhrer. He ordered to stop, let her go and get a toy from under the wheels, and he got out and stroked her hair. Helga still tells the story, I would say, not without trepidation (laughs).
Or, for example, in the Ministry of air transport, which was led by Goering, for it was built gym. And my friend who was acquainted with someone from the ministry, could safely walk personal gym Goering. And it passed, and no one had searched, no one checked her bag.
It seemed to us that all of us - a big family. You can not pretend that all this was not.
And then began the madness - megalomania sick the whole country. And that was the beginning of our disaster. And when the station Anhalter Bahnhof visited Germany friendly policy, we ran to meet them. I remember how Mussolini met when he came ... And what? How could you miss the arrival of the Duce? You is hard to understand, but each time their heroes, their errors and their myths. Now I'm wiser, I can say that was wrong, that she had to think deeper, but then what? In this atmosphere, the excitement and conviction mind ceases to play a role. By the way, when they signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, we were convinced that the Soviet Union is not our enemy.
You in 1941 is not expected that there will be war?
We probably did not expect that the war would begin so soon. After all the rhetoric of the Fuhrer and his ministers came to the fact that the Germans needed the land to the east. And every day on the radio, from newspapers, from the speeches - all talk about our greatness ... Greater Germany, Greater Germany, Greater Germany ... And how much of this great German is not enough! An ordinary person is the same logic: my neighbor "Mercedes", but I only have "Volkswagen". I want too, I'm better neighbor. Then I want more and more, more and more ... And somehow it all does not contradict the fact that most of us were believers ...
Around my house there was a church, but our priest never talked about the party and about Hitler. He was not even in the game. However, I have heard that in some other parishes pastors act directly in uniform! And it is said from the pulpit almost the same, indicating that the Fuehrer himself! They were absolutely fanatical Nazi pastors.
There were pastors who fought Nazism. They were sent to the camps.
Ruined Berlin. 1945