80 years ago, the Nazis staged provocation with the burning of the Reichstag.
The photo shows Nass Dora (nee Pettine), at the time she was only seven years old, but she remembers, as claimed by Hitler's dictatorship.
Dora Nass in his Berlin apartment
I was born in 1926 near the Potsdamer Platz, and lived on Kenigettsershtrasse. This street is located near the Wilhelmstrasse, where were all the ministries of the Third Reich and Hitler's own residence. I often come back and remember how it all began and how it ended. And it seems to me that it was not yesterday and not even five minutes ago, and is happening right now. I have very bad eyesight and hearing, but all that happened to me, to us, when Hitler came to power, and during the war, and in her last few months - I perfectly see and hear. But your face I can not see clearly, only fragments ... But my mind is still working. I hope (laughs).
Do you remember how you and your family react when Hitler came to power?
Do you know what was going on in Germany until 1933? Chaos, crisis, unemployment. On the streets - homeless. Many starved. Inflation is such that my mother to buy bread, took a bag of money. Not figuratively. A real little bag of banknotes. We thought that this horror will never end.
And then there is the man who stops the fall of Germany into the abyss. I remember very well, in which we were delighted with the early years of his reign. People work appeared to have been built roads, poverty went ...
And now, remembering our admiration, then, as we all and I with my girlfriends and friends praised our Fuehrer, as were willing to wait for hours of his speech, I would like to say this: you have to learn to recognize evil, until it became invincible. We did not work, and we paid the price! And forced to pay others.
My father died when I was eight months. Mother was quite apolitical. Our family had a restaurant in the center of Berlin. When we came into the restaurant officers CA, avoid them all. They behaved as an aggressive gang as proletarians, who gained power and want to make up for the years of slavery.
* On the night of November 9, 1938 in Germany began pogroms against the Jews ("Crystal Night"). About a hundred Jews were killed, 26 thousand. Sent to concentration camps.
In our school was not only the Nazis, some teachers did not join the party. Until November 9, 1938 * we did not feel how serious. But that morning, we saw that the stores that belonged to Jews, broken glass. And everywhere the inscription - "Jewish shop", "Do not buy from Jews" ... In the morning we realized that starts something bad. But none of us had no idea what the extent of the crime will be committed.
You see, there are so many resources to find out what is really going on. Then, almost no one had the phone rarely anyone had a radio, on TV and say nothing. A radio played Hitler and his ministers. And in the newspapers - they are. I read the newspaper every morning, because they were for customers in our restaurant. There's nothing written about the deportation and the Holocaust. And even my friends do not read newspapers ...
Of course, when our neighbors disappeared, we could not ignore this, but we were told that they were in the labor camp. About the death camp no one spoke. And if they said we did not believe ... The camp where people were killed? You do not say. You never know what the bloody and bizarre rumors do not happen in a war ...
Foreign policy came to us, and no one criticized the policies of Hitler. All shook his hand. Agreed on cooperation. What would we think?
Thousands peers Dora consisted in the National Socialist "League of German Girls»
You talked with friends about the war?
In 1939, we had no understanding of what war we untie. And even then, when the first refugees, we especially do not meditate - what does it all mean and where will. We had to feed them, clothe and provide shelter. And of course, we did not have imagined that the war will come to Berlin ... What can I say? Most people do not use the mind, as it was before.
Do you think that you, too, in his time did not use the mind?
(After a pause.) Yes, I have a lot thought, did not understand. Did not want to understand. And now, when I listen to recordings of Hitler's speeches - in some museum, for example - I always think: Oh my God, how strange and scary what he says, and because I'm young, was among those who stood in the balcony of his residence and screamed with delight ...
It is very difficult to resist the young man to the total flow, think what it all means, try to predict - what could happen? In ten years, I, like thousands of others of my peers, joined the "League of German Girls," which was created by the National Socialists. We had parties, caring for the elderly, traveled, traveled together on nature, we had holidays. The summer solstice, for example. Bonfires, songs, joint work for the benefit of the great German ... In short, we were organized on the same principle as that of the pioneers in the Soviet Union.
In my class learned boys and girls whose parents were Communists or Social Democrats. They forbade their children to take part in the Nazi holidays. And my brother was in the Hitler Youth little boss. And he said: If someone wants our organization, please - if not, we will not make. But there were other little Fuhrer, who said, who is not with us is against us. And they were very aggressive to those who refused to participate in a common cause.
Pastors in uniform
My girlfriend Helga lived right on the Wilhelmstrasse. This street often went car Hitler, accompanied by five cars. And once it came under the wheels of a toy car Fuhrer. He ordered to stop, let her go and get a toy from under the wheels, and he got out and stroked her hair. Helga still tells the story, I would say, not without trepidation (laughs).
Or, for example, in the Ministry of air transport, which was led by Goering, for it was built gym. And my friend who was acquainted with someone from the ministry, could safely walk personal gym Goering. And it passed, and no one had searched, no one checked her bag.
It seemed to us that all of us - a big family. You can not pretend that all this was not.
And then began the madness - megalomania sick the whole country. And that was the beginning of our disaster. And when the station Anhalter Bahnhof visited Germany friendly policy, we ran to meet them. I remember how Mussolini met when he came ... And what? How could you miss the arrival of the Duce? You is hard to understand, but each time their heroes, their errors and their myths. Now I'm wiser, I can say that was wrong, that she had to think deeper, but then what? In this atmosphere, the excitement and conviction mind ceases to play a role. By the way, when they signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, we were convinced that the Soviet Union is not our enemy.
You in 1941 is not expected that there will be war?
We probably did not expect that the war would begin so soon. After all the rhetoric of the Fuhrer and his ministers came to the fact that the Germans needed the land to the east. And every day on the radio, from newspapers, from the speeches - all talk about our greatness ... Greater Germany, Greater Germany, Greater Germany ... And how much of this great German is not enough! An ordinary person is the same logic: my neighbor "Mercedes", but I only have "Volkswagen". I want too, I'm better neighbor. Then I want more and more, more and more ... And somehow it all does not contradict the fact that most of us were believers ...
Around my house there was a church, but our priest never talked about the party and about Hitler. He was not even in the game. However, I have heard that in some other parishes pastors act directly in uniform! And it is said from the pulpit almost the same, indicating that the Fuehrer himself! They were absolutely fanatical Nazi pastors.
There were pastors who fought Nazism. They were sent to the camps.
Ruined Berlin. 1945
In books written about the fact that the German race - the highest?
Now I'll show you my school textbook (takes a bookshelf school textbook in 1936). I still keep: my books, textbooks daughter, things late husband - I love not only the history of the country, but also a small, private, my story. Look - textbook 1936 edition. I am ten years old. Read one of the texts. Please aloud.
Der fuhrer kommt (coming Fuhrer).
Today, on a plane to fly us to Adolf Hitler. Little Reinhold really wants to see him. He asks for mom and dad to go with him to meet the Fuhrer. They go on foot. And at the airport had already gathered a lot of people. And the kid passed Reinhold: "You're a little - go ahead, you have to see the Führer!»
Plane with Hitler seemed far away. Playing music, all freeze in admiration, and that the plane landed, and welcome all the Fuhrer! Little Reinhold enthusiastic shouts: "He flew! Arrived! Heil Hitler! "Unable to stand the excitement, Reinhold runs to the Führer. He says the baby, smiling, takes the hand and says: "It's good that you came!»
Reinhold happy. He will never forget.
Now I'm funny, and sad to read it, but then these texts seemed to me quite normal.
** Anti-Semitic film "Jew Suss" Veit Harlan was shot by personal order of Goebbels in 1940, in order to justify the persecution of the Jews openly.
We went to a class of anti-Semitic films, to "Jew Süss" **, for example. This movie proved that Jews are greedy, dangerous, that one of them evil, that we should get rid of them, our city as soon as possible. Propaganda - terrible force. The most terrible. So I recently met a woman my age. She spent her life in the GDR. She has so many stereotypes about the West Germans! It is about us saying and thinking (laughs). And just to meet me, she began to realize that the West Germans - the same people, not the greedy and arrogant, but simply - people. And how many years have passed after the merger? And because we belong to one nation, but even in this case, prejudice, inspired propaganda, so tenacious.
Now I can not figure out how to divide people along ethnic lines. I am an old man, and now it seems to me that everything is so simple: if someone has something much, he must share it; that it is impossible to dislike or even despise the man for what he is another nation ... But I will not make you a report on morality (laughs). I was young so often heard that the Slavic race - inferior race ... How could believe it?
Would you believe?
When you every day, the leaders of the country say the same thing, and you're a teenager ... Yes, believe it. I do not know any Slav, Polish or Russian. And in 1942 I went to - voluntarily! - From Berlin to work in a small Polish village. We all worked without pay very much.
You lived in the occupied territory?
Yes I Am. Poles were evicted from there and arrived Germans who lived before in Ukraine. My name was Emma and Emil, very nice people. Good family. German spoken as well as in Russian. I lived there for three years. Although in 1944, has become evident that we are losing the war, still in that village I felt very good because that benefits the country and lived among good people.
Do not be fooled that this village was expelled people who used to live there?
I did not think about it. Now, perhaps, it is difficult, if not impossible, to understand ...
Dora Nass after the war
Where is the train
In January 1945, I began an attack of appendicitis. The disease is, of course, found the time! (Laughs.) I was lucky that I was sent to the hospital and operated on. Already have chaos, our troops left Poland, and so what I have medical care - a miracle. After the operation, I lay for three days. We, the patients were evacuated.
We did not know where the train goes. Understood only direction - we're going to the west, we run from Russian. Sometimes the train stopped, and we did not know whether it will go further. If I ask for documents on the train - the consequences could be dire. I could ask why I'm not there, which sent me to their home? Why not on the farm? Who let me go? What is the difference that I'm sick? Then there was this fear and chaos that I could shoot.
But I wanted to go home. Only home. To his mom. Finally the train stopped near Berlin in Ueckermünde. And there I went. An unknown woman, a nurse, seeing the state in which I - with draining even seams, with almost an open wound that is constantly sick - I bought a ticket to Berlin. And I met with my mother.
And a month later, I was still sick, went to Berlin to get a job. So strong was the fear! And with him - education, I could not leave her and her Berlin Germany at this moment.
You surprised to hear this - and about faith, and about fear, but I assure you, if I heard the Russian people my age, he would have understood perfectly what I mean ...
I worked in the barn until 21 April 1945. On that day, Berlin became so scared to fire, but never fired. And I, again without asking anybody's permission, ran away. The streets were strewn arms, burning tanks, screaming wounded, lay the corpses, the city began to die, and I did not believe that I was going to his Berlin ... it was quite another horrible place ... it was a dream, a nightmare ... I to no came up, I will not help, I was enchanted to where my house was.
And on April 28, my mother, my grandfather and I went down to the bunker - because Berlin began to seize the Soviet army. My mom took with him only one thing - a small cup. And she saw before her death only from this cracked, tarnished cup. I'm leaving the house, had brought my favorite leather bag. I wore a watch and a ring - and that's all that's left of my past life.
And then we went down to the bunker. There could not step to step - the terms of the people, the toilets do not work, a horrible stench ... No one has no food, no water ...
And suddenly among us, hungry and frightened, sweeps rumor: part of the German army took up positions in the north of Berlin and begin to fight for the city! And all lit up such hope! We decided in that whatever was to break through to our army. Can you imagine? It was obvious that we had lost the war, but we still believe that victory is still possible.
And we with her grandfather, who was supported by both sides, went through the underground to the north of Berlin. But we were not last long - soon turned out that the subway flooded. There have been knee-deep water. We were three of us - and around the darkness and water. Upstairs - Russian tanks. And we decided not to go anywhere, and just hide under the platform. Wet, we were there and just waiting ...
Berlin surrendered on May 3. When I saw the ruins, I could not believe it - my Berlin. Once again I thought it was a dream and I was about to wake up. We went to look for our house. When they came to the place where he had stood, we saw the ruins.
Then we started looking for a roof over your head and settled in a dilapidated house. Sitting there somehow, out of the house and sat down on the grass.
And suddenly we saw in the distance a cart. There was no doubt: it is the Russian soldiers. I, of course, terribly frightened when the cart stopped and went in our favor Soviet soldier. And then he spoke in German! Very good German!
So for me the world began. He sat down next to us, and we talked for a long time. He told me about his family, I told him - on his own. And we were both so happy that there is no more war! There was no hatred, not even the fear of a Russian soldier. I gave him your picture, and he gave me his. The photograph was written postal front room.
For three days he lived with us. And he set up at the house where we lived, a small ad: "Busy tank crews." So he saved us a house, and perhaps life. Because we would have kicked out fit for home, and it is unknown what would happen to us next. Meeting with him, I remember as a miracle. He was a man in a brutal time.
I want to especially emphasize that there was no romance. This is not even think it was impossible in that situation. What a novel! We had to just survive. Of course, met me and other Soviet soldiers ... For example, I was suddenly approached by a man in uniform, abruptly snatched my bag from his hands, and dropped to the ground right there, right in front of me, urinated on it.
We heard rumors that make the Soviet soldiers with a German woman, and we are afraid of them. Then we learned that our troops did in the USSR. And my meeting with Boris, and the way he behaved - it's a miracle. A May 9, 1945, Boris did not come back to us. And then I looked for him for many decades, I wanted to thank him for an act he has committed. I wrote everywhere - in your government, the Kremlin, the Secretary General - and invariably received or silence or denial.
After Gorbachev came to power, I felt that I had a chance to find out whether Boris was alive, and if so, find out where he lives and what happened to him, and maybe even meet him! But under Gorbachev me again and again came the same answer: the Russian army does not open its archives.
This is my husband. This is my favorite picture.