Is it true that your dog thinks only of eating, sleeping and chasing cats? Is it true that your cat girl something against you? Is it true that cows - just walking burgers and doves claim to world domination?
What is included in our understanding of the intelligence of animals?
The way we relate to different types of animals, often depends on our cultural and personal prejudices. It is human nature compassion for their fellows, so we seem to be more intelligent mammals birds and reptiles, while the insects seem to us mindless creatures.
The reality is: intelligence is a complex concept that is difficult to determine objectively, without having to be used as a "benchmark" our own abilities.
Even more difficult to measure the intelligence of the animal. It's one thing to evaluate the ability of their own kind, with which you can communicate and conduct written tests. But the measurement of animal intelligence greatly hampered by the lack of a common language and opposable thumb.
Scientists who study the ability of animals, look at our little brothers, not as a mindless creatures, but as in his own sentient beings who see the world very differently than we humans.
Everyone knows the process of transformation began to monkey with the fact that she picked up a stick. The use of guns has long been considered a form of manifestation of intelligence, peculiar only to people.
However, the survey found that the animals are able to use the tools, though not as people.
During experiments with elephants, for example, researchers gave the animals a stick, placing food out of reach. At this stage, the elephants with the task failed. They know where the food, they were able to take the stick, but to get food with her help, they could not.
In the future, scientists were able to detect the error in the course of this study. Grabbing a stick trunk, elephant prevented from sniffing and feel that those abilities that elephants are more trusted than vision. Then the researchers tried to do something different, namely to offer the elephants box. The Result? Elephants kicked the box as long as it had the opportunity to perch on it and reach for food.
Even less studied area - the animals' ability to empathize. Scientists believe a very long primates selfish. Monkeys offered to take the food yourself or share it with neighbors. Often monkeys took food only for themselves - probably did not understand the experimental setup.
However, recently conducted an experiment in which monkeys were asked to choose between two tokens in return for one could get food only for themselves, and the other made it possible to obtain for himself and another neighbor. The result exceeded all expectations: the monkeys preferred badges that reward both individuals.
These and many other studies have shown that different species have well-developed intellect.
Proteins, for example, hide the seeds so to say "fun" when they are being watched. Crows can build hooks from wire and use them for their own purposes. Chimpanzees are more advanced short term memory than people.
Bumblebees are able to solve certain problems faster computer. Rats have a sense of compassion for their fellow. Honey bees can recognize faces. Magpies are self-aware.
Even roundworms, has only 302 cells in the brain, are able to remember and also capable of learning.
Several studies have proven that we assume the lowest intelligence of those animals whose meat eating them - so we are trying to get rid of the guilt.
Hard to accept that we may so smart, what used to consider himself. More and more studies show that, apparently, the development of logic and intellect, regularly used by us to solve problems, to a large extent based on the shortest route, known as heuristics. Simply put, it is very close to what we call instinct.
From our closest relatives (primates and mammals) to animals standing on the evolutionary ladder away from us (birds and insects) - all biological organisms are endowed with a certain level of intelligence.
To survive, all living things on this planet have to solve their problems.
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