For centuries sailed convoys toward the rising sun. East attracted fabulous, originality and uniqueness. Being brought from the East cloth, fans, boxes, vases and other products; decorated with extraordinary fish, made a great impression, but the existence of these fish are no suspects and have long believed their figment of the imagination of the artist. Several centuries behind the walls of the Chinese and the Japanese imperial palaces hiding one of the wonders of the world - a goldfish.
We engaged in fish farming in ancient Egypt, as evidenced by the sources, dated about 2000 BC, more than four thousand years ago. In Mesopotamia, the priests of the temples contained in the fish ponds. Fish held in ponds in ancient Rome and Greece.
But in China, we began to engage in purposeful breeding of ornamental fish species which we know under the name of goldfish.
In Europe, goldfish appeared only in 1728, they were very rare, highly valued, and gave them as a jewel, only royals. So, goldfish were presented to the Marquise de Pompadour. In Russia, they were far from China as a gift to the Russian tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. Later, Catherine II had fabulous fish from your favorite Prince Potemkin.
Many legends composed about the appearance of goldfish. In one of them tells of a terrible storm, during which Ocean rampage, thrown out of their abyss fish of great beauty. On the other - a long time ago, when people lived in China and never sailed across the sea, in a poor village boy lived and beautiful as the dawn, the girl Tao. They loved each other tightly. It seemed that no one can separate them. But once on the Celestial Empire was attacked by enemies. Emperor clicked cry: "Who can keep in the hands of the sword, who can throw a spear - to help gather to the Great Wall!».
Tao wept bitterly, seeing his beloved to war. Where her tears fell to the ground, like the dawn grew flowers - roses. Long fought the sons of the Celestial Empire, until driven out enemies.
Then began returning brave warriors home. Only favorite Tao did not come. He found another girl. Tao came to the shore of the lake, and wept bitterly. Tears dripped into the water and immediately turned into a goldfish.
And another legend tells people that goldfish have fallen from the sky. On fluffy clouds heavenly king made a palace for the daughters. Other miracles were in it, but nothing happy girls. They looked at the ground. It went fine young man ...
Angry King, having learned about it, and turned to the daughters of goldfish. Now he could be calm. But one day, I will compete for one of the fish jumped out of the pond and fell down. Behind her in the earth and the rest of the lake jumped.
The ancestor of the goldfish is a Chinese carp ji. This question has long remained open, but there were references to the hypothesis of authoritative ichthyologists. Prior studies due to the low technological level was not allowed to give this account a precise answer. And only in the late 70-ies of XX century, Yoshio Azuma, Senior Professor of the Academy of Kansai, finished the work begun by a great connoisseur of goldfish and pearls, the late Professor Matsuseya. In life, the teacher was given the case so that all collected in the field relevant to the goldfish: writings, literature, ancient manuscripts and other works of art; these collected materials they were known as the Library of goldfish.
Under the leadership of Matsuseya in 1942 Azuma performed research on cell genetics of freshwater fish and fish research on chromosomes of Japanese origin. These works are encouraged to clarify the question of the ancestors of goldfish. Due to the results of experiments in genetics and research on serology, cytology, morphology, it was found that the prototype is a goldfish goldfish.
The Turks ri ka geruy kokorodzasi (carp fish family in China) reported that in China there are three fish in the carp genus: kurodzi, Ginza and ji.
Kurodzi (black carp - Carassius carassius) and Ginza (Amur goldfish - Carassius auratus gibetio) are common in the northern part of China, and there were goldfish in the south, so they can not be the progenitors. It only remains to ji. Receiving from China 20 living ji (Carassius auratus auratus), the Institute zooissledovaniya were compared with a goldfish. The number of chromosomes had the same 2n = 100. Their similarity was confirmed by the analysis of the "C-Band-staining." Then compare the number of dorsal fin rays, the number of gill bones and other external signs, examined muscle protein from a biochemical point of view. These results were identical with the results of goldfish.
Among ordinary goldfish gray orange are individuals called hibuna - wild goldfish, or gold Hee (in ancient China called Ji-Yu). From it emerged a mutation, which differs from the wild goldfish terete body shape and a forked tail (King-Yu), and an amazing ability to produce offspring with all sorts of deformities (no fins, extraordinary, their length or shape, swollen body, bulging eyes and other abnormalities). Chinese, Koreans and Japanese are all fans of the original, tried by artificial selection of random monsters turn into a permanent, highly original, shape. Due to enormous patience and the work of several generations managed to fix the shape and color of the fish. This was achieved by feeding them special kinds of food, the selection of the necessary water bodies, lighting and others known only by the breeder, receptions.