Andromeda, Cassiopeia, the Milky Way, the solar wind - what beautiful and unearthly words, they are literally shrouded in mystery. Space around us, our planet is a very small part of the universe, of which we know practically nothing. Black abyss filled with hot stars hanging in the icy void, fraught with a lot of unknown and mysterious things. What do people today about these mysteries titanic scale?
1st place: The Galactic cannibalism
Just like in life on earth, in space, some "special" quietly devour others. No exception and galaxies. For example, a neighbor of the Milky Way - Andromeda is now devouring their smaller neighbors. Inside, more than a dozen disparate Andromeda star clusters - the remnants of past feasts.
In the picture - the simulation of collision of our home galaxy and Andromeda, which happens after only 3 billion years:
2nd place: Quasars
These super-bright beacons are looking at us from the edges of the visible universe, the earth and remind scientists of the chaotic and turbulent childhood of our universe. Quasars emit energy that is greater than the energy of hundreds of galaxies combined. Argued that the quasars - a giant black holes at the centers of distant galaxies.
In the picture - the quasar 3C 273, photographed in 1979:
3rd place: Dark matter
Experts suspect the existence of huge accumulations of matter in the universe, although, to date, these clusters neither see nor fix failed. More of our little bit poor technical equipment, however. In astronomical terms, of course. Such clusters may consist, according to numerous assumptions, of anything - from light neutrinos to invisible black holes. But some of the scholars said that dark matter and did not happen, and to explain the anomaly, so we call it, will help better understanding of the aspects of gravity.
In the picture - a fantasy on the theme of dark matter:
4th place: Gravitational waves
The distortion of space-time continuum are called gravitational waves. This phenomenon was predicted by Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity. These waves move at the speed of light and is so elusive that even such giant special laser-interferometric gravitational-wave observatory as LIGO and LISA, capture only those waves that are formed as a result of any changes in the enormous space. For example, the merger of two black holes is shown below:
5th place: The vacuum energy
As it turned out, in the vacuum of space is not so empty as it seems. Quantum physics states that interstellar space is literally packed with virtual subatomic particles that are continuously broken down and appear again. These particles are filled every corner of the space of some anti-gravitational energy of the order and make space to move. Although no one has so far failed to explain where the universe is moving and why it is needed.
In the picture it, the universe ...
6th place: Mini black holes
Inquiring minds of our contemporaries have called into question the theory of "Big Bang" and if their assumptions are correct, then our universe is filled with a myriad of tiny black holes, each the size of a nucleus of an atom. These baby do not behave like their older sisters and, because of its vague ties to the fifth dimension, a different effect on the space-time.
That's the fantasy of the artist presents us with a mini-black hole:
7th place: Neutrinos
Neutrino - a neutral elementary particles having substantially no specific gravity. Despite its "neutrality", these kids are free to pass through the layer of lead many kilometers. Or, for example, recently passed through your sandwich this morning. Such particles born in fusion furnaces of "healthy" stars, as well as during the explosions of dying stars. You can see the neutrinos with the help of the giant area of neutrino detectors located on the bottom of the sea or in the ice.
In the photo - a model of the neutrino:
8th place: Exoplanets
The planets that exist outside the solar system, called exoplanets. Prior to the '90s earthlings believed that there is no planet "of attached" to this or that action star. As of June 2006, we know of more than 190 extrasolar planets. The size of these planets range from the homeless gas giants, almost stars to small rocky bodies, describing their orbits around red dwarfs (small and relatively cool star, diameter and weight does not exceed one third of the sun). Whatever it was, the search for a second Earth is not successful. Perhaps with the advent of more powerful tools for space exploration, we have more luck and it will be just around the corner.
And yet - the image of one such extrasolar planets (like Earth) more fiction than reality:
9th place: microwave background space
The microwave background space (CMB-Cosmic Microwave Background) was discovered in the 60s of the last century, as the weak radiated everywhere, radiation. Presumably, this residual radiation from the Big Bang that marked the beginning of our universe. CMB is one of the most compelling evidence for this theory was born. Accurate measurements to determine the temperature CMB - terrible -270S.
The photo - a heat map of the visible universe:
At the last, 10th place: Antimatter
How evil is always opposed to the good, and the particles of antimatter are always in radical opposition to their antipodes of the ordinary world. So, for example, we all know the negatively charged electron, there is an equivalent in antimatter - the positively charged positron. If the two antipodes are facing, they annihilate, releasing pure energy equal to their total weight and described Einstein's formula E = mc2. Futurists believe that spaceships of the future will be driven by a motor is annihilation.
In the photo - one of those starship, the vision of the artist: