— Doctor, will I die?
— A must!
In this "black" joke, according to the Professor, and the answer to the question: are we slaves of our resources?
The fact of mortalityThere is a so-called fact of death:
inside each of our cells has a special structure-supplements — so-called telomeres, inducing the cells to divide. For a normal life, there should be 50 maximum 55. But with each division the telomere remains one less (they unhook an enzyme): 49, 48 and so on down.
No matter: I do you the forehead, whether meditating in the Tibetan mountains, crosses Lee kiss in Rome — after all the ability to cell division, that is to say we are running out of telomeres that occurs in a natural biological death.
In principle, these resources allow you to live 150 years.But — far from civilization, in a supportive environment and, as a rule, like the earthworm. When you work actively the possibilities of the body is seriously reduced.The limit is 80-90 years, then just goes slow death.
- 50-55-fold cycle of the tick marks — that is our limit (for plants he could reach 75-95, but also not eternal). On average, a ton of cells — as our body produces in a lifetime. The next time such a counter will start only after the merger of the two sex cells in reproduction.
Notice: in the elderly, the skin becomes parchment, age spots appear on areas the former burns, bumps? And just cells produce less and less.
- Our skin (the upper layer of the epithelium) is updated:
— hands — every day;
— on the face and head every three days (do not give advertising exhortations to use shampoo every day);
— on the body — once a week (and do not force it with a loofah more often).
- Blood cells are replaced:
— the average person — every 80 days.
— the athlete — every 40 days.
So physiological human resources are very modest, and there is no reason to exceed:
- The heart is able to contract only 800 million times in a lifetime (about the same as the mouse and the elephant).
- Not infinite and the number of contractions of the muscles of the tongue.
- But the muscles of the body is able to develop such a huge effort that, if not constraints, would have long ago crushed its own skeleton.
sport results — self-destruct, reducing the average life expectancy of athletes up to 50 years.
In search of eternal cellsWe also have a non-renewable system — the nervous.
All the ideas, like the brain cells multiply and almost every day there is up to a million new neurons, is built on flawed experiments with animals — even 25 years ago, scientists found that in rats the division of nerve cells is only stored for 2-3 months after birth.Falsification and that the number of neurons can be increased by using stem cells.
Usually this fond of psychologists and physiologists, poorly versed in the structural organization of the brain, and of course, speculators from medicine, to do business on the suffering and aspirations of patients.
And as tempting: stem cells, supposedly infinitely divisible, able to cure not only for baldness but also for all illnesses! Already there are many legal and illegal firms, where for decent money doing such transplants. Pains in the liver? Please cell of the liver! Brain? The brain cell! And not necessarily in the brain — and can be much softer.
About the problems of finding the "eternal" cells written thousands of articles. In the US there is even a scientific Institute where they claim that the researchers were able to isolate cells from either the blood, or subcutaneous fat "ever-living" cells that can be placed in different chemical conditions and thus to obtain different types of cells — heart, lungs, liver, and even different types of fabric! Famous Katherine Verfaille "proves" that taking such a cell in an adult male, has already received about 140 types of cells living forever. Nonsense! Differentiation of cells such "tricks" is simply impossible to run!
And to grow the tissue, the more three-dimensional, which I noticed no one can boast, even more difficult than decoding the same genome.How is it possible to fool everybody's head? It's very simple.
For example, one cell get one hundred and freeze. Then, when the first on legs and is about to stop sharing, from the refrigerator take out the same the second, third,... Bezotosnyi experiment! And to prove that the cell slowly transformed, say, into the heart, it is placed in the hood of cardiomyocytes (chopped and filtered heart tissue), where it is, of course, "eats" and stores the corresponding characteristic proteins. Then this "eternal" cell transplanted to a clean environment, showing the audience and say that this is the future of the cardiomyocyte. However, the muscle tissue of the heart yet, but it definitely will, because you see specific antibodies characteristic of cardiac tissue. And the cell just "ate" what was around. And it's funny to think that in this way it will be possible to obtain human tissue. Never.
To date, no work proving that overcome 50-fold cycle.
If this happened, the pharmaceutical companies would celebrate a victory: after all, to develop drugs from the same AIDS should not in cancer, truly immortal, and in the healthy cells. But the long-term experiments, the scientists of Germany showednone of the somatic tissue culture cells don't live more than 4.5 years
.For this reason, it is impossible for anyone to clone.
If the nucleus of a somatic cell transplanted into the egg, the embryo will just die of old age, because somatic has already developed a significant part of the resource divisions. Therefore, the issue of cloning — the business of business and hoax, not medicine.
By the way, was the famous Dolly the sheep clone is not genetically proven. Serious work, saying only that it is possible to achieve nuclear transfer: the embryo for some time divided, and then dies. This fact was known scientists for a quarter of a century ago...But why, one wonders, does not subside journalistic veterinary the hype about the supposedly cloned here and there cats, dogs, pigs?
Alas, this is pure politics. The fact that in his time the English government, having bought the story of Dolly, has allocated huge money for research signed by the Queen herself. When it became clear that all this is, to put it mildly, the hype, the fight went to "saving face." It then came up with the miracle stem cell treatment, growing with them of organs, tissues and other nonsense unrelated to reality.And if to speak by and large, the program "human Genome" — a purely American show.
In the genome-that actually has been researched only 10% of the genes encoding proteins. The remaining 90% is terra incognita, although it has announced the completion of the program. And those 10% of genes studied, only one — one! — man, what reason all "forget" to say.
So we have to admit: our brain, being a biological product, is limited.
And no new resources can be created — well, not multiply the brain cells do not reproduce. Even if we quietly asleep watching TV, the brain consumes up to 10% of everything I drank and ate during the day. And in active life, and even, depending on body mass consumption is increased at least twice. Exorbitant costs for the body! He doesn't know whether tomorrow is the food. It is no coincidence that under adverse conditions the brain shuts down first.
Man-"Zaporozhets" and"Mercedes"There is a perception that our brain works on 10%. In fact, he always works at the 100!
Even when you read the newspaper and seemingly only activated areas responsible for vision, reading and logic at the same time work and other neurons, for example, those that are responsible for maintaining your posture. However, they are less active, but also transmit signals and at any moment ready to perform a new task. The doorbell rang? And now zachastili neurons responsible for hearing, walking, recognition. If the brain is indeed working on a tenth, man would have died after 4 minutes.Another thing — how often do you activate those certain areas.And here we are confronted with another infinite delusion that it is possible to develop abilities. No! They can only implement. And how deep is another question.
The brain of each has its structural and morphological organization that defines character, sensory, motor, and other opportunities and constraints. No absolutely identical brains. All the mental, the physical resources of the brain identified the birth:
how genes, parents, and the fact that for materials — proteins, fats, carbohydrates brought on a new nervous system an expectant mother. If at this time she was doing a raw food diet, starvation, the child is likely to be not adequately developed brain.
Figuratively speaking, no matter how much power "Zaporozhets", it will not go better and faster "Mercedes". There is no sense of scale to look for geniuses — this is a unique phenomenon.In the individual brain, that is, in each case, need not deal with the problem of development of functions, which is not, and implement what exactly is inherited from mom and dad.
How is it determined? Very simple — present your brain a lot of options. Let's try different. The man himself clutching his own.
- If better auditory and vocal areas of the brain, will sing.
- Analytical? Do not tear off from chess, science.
But there is a limit: from the back-breaking task even Mercedes may stall and fall by the wayside. And not putting the important task of "Zaporozhets" slowly but surely, to realize their talents. And this is the most healthy way. The ultimate dream!
From scientific errors to the revolution — one step
The prestige of French science in the early nineteenth century was so great that the utopians, and later Marx, Engels and Lenin have adopted a wild theory scientist Flourens. He argued that the brain is all identical, and has localization features (e.g., areas responsible for sight, hearing).
Marxists shifted the theory of the scientist in the social sphere: since all have the same brain, enough the sacrifice of two generations, and the third grown in ideal conditions-with the songs to go to work — only to create the conditions.
A one and only French Gal did not agree with Flourens, claiming that the brain of each person is a unique individual. Curious:
before his death, Napoleon had the main merit campaign in Russia, and the destruction of Galia. All those in power are afraid of one — in vivo identification of their abilities, which Gal is theoretically determined by the projections (bumps) of the skull.
As history has shown, people are really different. And no matter how beat Makarenko for the bright future of homeless children in his colony revealed a mass newhospitality, which was easier to isolate from the "ideal" community. Later scientists confirmed that the brain convolutions, the furrows are as individual as fingerprints. And not all get to think and live the same way. As to reach the same heights.
*Sergey V. Saveliev is a prominent Russian Professor, doctor of biological Sciences, head of Department of embryology, research Institute of human morphology of RAMS. The first in the world who managed to study and photograph the 11-day human embryo. The scientist was able to establish with accuracy until the days of crisis phase in the formation of the nervous system of the embryo, leading to the different pathologies of the human brain.
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©