We know that geothermal energy is the heat of the Earth, and the term "geothermal" is often associated with volcanoes and geysers. In Russia geothermal energy is used mainly in industrial scale, for example, there are the far Eastern power plants operating on the basis of the heat of the Earth. Many people believe that geothermal heating at home is fantastic. But it is not!A few historical facts
When in the 70-ies of the last century oil crisis, the West became a burning need for alternative energy sources. In here time and began to form the first geothermal heating system. Today they are widespread in the United States, in Canada and in Western European countries.
At the mention of geothermal sources of energy we always imagine the valley of geysers or volcanoes, but we need sources much closer. And they will help us to keep warm in winter and cool in summer.For example, in Sweden the active use of the water of the Baltic sea, whose temperature is + 4 degrees. In Germany the introduction of geothermal heating systems even sponsored at the state level. In Russia there are Pauzhetskaya, Verkhne-Mutnovskaya, Ocean and other geothermal power plants. But the facts of energy use of Land in our private sector is very small.The real advantages and disadvantages
If Russia geothermal heating from the private sector received a relatively small distribution, does this mean that the idea is not worth the cost of its implementation? Maybe to address this issue is not necessary? It turned out that it is not.
The use of geothermal heating system of the dwelling – the solution to profitable. And there are several reasons. Including fast installation of equipment that is capable of long time work without any interruptions. If used in the heating system water, and high-quality antifreeze, it will freeze and the wear and tear will be minimal.
List the other benefits of this type of heating.
- Eliminates the procedure of burning of fuel. We create absolutely fireproof system, which, in its operation, will not be able to inflict any damage to the housing. Furthermore, the number of points associated with the presence of fuel: now you do not need to look for a place to store it, to do its procurement or delivery.
- Acoustic comfort. The heat pump works almost noiselessly.
- Significant economic benefit. In the operation of the system will not require any additional investment. Annual Parking provide the forces of nature that we do not buy. Of course, in the operation of the heat pump consumed electric energy, but the energy generated is much larger than consumption.
- Ecological factor. Geothermal heating of a private country house is an eco – friendly solution. The absence of combustion eliminates the receipt in atmosphere of products of combustion. If it is realized by many, and such a heating system will be properly widespread, the negative impact of humans on nature is repeatedly reduced.
- The compactness of the system. You will not have to arrange their house in a separate boiler room. All that is needed is a heat pump that can be placed, for example, in the basement. Most of the volumetric contour of the system will be located under ground or under water, on the surface of your site you will not see it.
- Versatility. The system can run on heating in the cold season and for cooling during the summer heat. That is, in fact, she will replace you with not only a heater but also air conditioning.
The choice of geothermal heating systems cost effective, despite the fact that have to spend on the purchase and installation of equipment. By the way, as the lack of mention exactly the cost that will have to go to install the system and prepare it to work. Will need to buy the pump itself and some materials, to perform works on installation of external and internal contours of the manifold.
It is no secret that resources are becoming more expensive from year to year, so heating system, which is able to be repaid within several years is always economically advantageous for her Vladimirovichem, these costs are recouped in just the first few years of operation. Subsequent use of the collector allows to save a lot of money. Besides the installation process is not so difficult to invite to run third-party experts. If you do not engage in the drilling, all the rest can be done independently.The geothermal heating
To geothermal heating you can use the following sources of earth heat energy:
- high temperature;
- low temp.
To high temperature include, for example, thermal springs. To use them you can, but their application is limited to the actual location of such sources. If in Iceland, this form of energy is actively applied in Russia of thermal water located far from human settlements. The maximum they are concentrated on the Kamchatka Peninsula, where the underground water is used as coolant and supply to the domestic hot water system.
For efficient use of thermal energy of the earth does not need a volcano. It is enough to use the resources that are only 200 metres from the earth's surface But for the application of low-temperature sources we have all the necessary prerequisites. For this purpose, suitable surrounding air, land or water. To extract the energy using a heat pump. With it is the procedure of converting the ambient temperature into heat energy not only for heating but also hot water of a private household.The principle of operation of alternative heating
If you are familiar with the work of the air conditioner or refrigerator, the similarity of these processes with the principle of the functioning of geothermal heating are obvious. The system is based on a heat pump, which is included in the two contour – internal and external.
To organize a traditional heating system in any home, you need to mount it in the pipe to transport the coolant and heating, when heated, which heat will be supplied to the premises. In our case, the pipes and radiators are also needed. They form the inner loop of the system. The scheme can be added Underfloor heating.
Outer loop looks much bigger interior, although the dimensions can be assessed only during planning and installation. In the process of operation it is invisible because it is underground or under water. Inside this loop circulates normal water or antifreeze based on ethylene glycol, which is much preferable.
The composition of the geothermal heating system consists of two contour – internal and external, as well as the heart of the heating system – a heat pump, which, compressing the coolant and increases the temperature of the Coolant in the outer circuit is heated to the state of the medium in which it is immersed, and is sent in a "heated" in the heat pump. Through him, concentrated heat is reported to the internal circuits, causing the water in the pipes, radiators and warm heated floors.
Thus, a key element, animating the entire system is a heat pump. If your house has a common washing machine, you should know: this pump is approximately the same area. To work it needs electricity, but consumes only 1 kW, it provides the production of 4-5 kW of heat. And it's not a miracle, because the source "extension" of energy known is that of the environment.Two types of arrangement of the heat exchanger
, There are two options for the heating of private houses use low-temperature energy of the environment. The basis of the system in all three cases is a geothermal pump. The internal circuit remains unchanged for any method of heating, and the main difference lies in the location of the external circuit.
Geothermal heating is with a heat exchanger located:
Horizontal heat exchangers of the system are placed in a pit or an outdoor pond in a kind of serpentine, located in vertical wells, revealing or not revealing an aquifer.
Each of these types of heating is characterized by its own peculiarities, drawbacks and benefits. If you intend to create a heating system with their own hands, you might want to know about each of the types in more detail.The vertical positioning of the external header
This type of heating is based on an interesting natural phenomenon: at a depth of 50-100 meters or more from the surface the earth is round has the same and constant temperature of 10-12 degrees.
To be able to use this earth energy, it is necessary to drill vertical wells. With the aim of maximum preservation of the landscape, you can drill several pipes with the same starting point but different angles. External loop system will be mounted directly in these wells. This will effectively deprive the earth of its heat. Of course, this method can hardly be called simple and low budget.
To create a vertical geothermal heating system you need to use the equipment for the drilling of wells without using a drilling rig, the task of the system will be quite time-consuming he is Relevant in the case when the adjacent territory is already developed, and the violation of its landscape is impractical. Depth of drilling can reach from 50 to 200 meters. The specific parameters of the wells depend on geological conditions on the site and parameters of the future construction. The lifespan of this design is about 100 years.
For the device of vertical system with a heat exchanger that extracts the energy of underground water, you will need to drill two aquifer wells. One of them is called a debit, with a pump takes the samples of water which after heat transfer is drained to the second, receiving production.
Minus geothermal system with two wells in the lack of effectiveness for heating of a country house. Too much energy spending circulating pump. But for the supply of the coolant circuit of a warm floor get the thermal energy is enoughHorizontal location of an underground header
to put the outer contour in the horizontal type of heating, you need to know how deep the ground freezes in your area. Pipes are laid below the frost in a prepared trench, while grabbing a fairly large space to heat the house, an area of 200-250 square meters, it is necessary to use approximately 600 square meters of the heat exchanger. That is six acres.
The disadvantage of this design is the large area that it occupies. If you need on a plot of lawn, covered with grass and flowers – this is your option. And from the fruit trees of the header pipe is better to keep away it is Clear that under such conditions, the volume of earthworks will be significant. In addition, you need to take into account the location of trees and other vegetation on the site, in order not to freeze them. For example, you cannot locate header pipe closer than five feet from the trees.
This method of installation is usually used in cases where the area is only being developed for construction. All calculations and plans for the construction of the cottage, the organization of its heating and land plot planning is best done at the same time.Immersion horizontal heat exchanger in a reservoir
, This method requires a special arrangement of a household – at a distance of approximately 100 metres of a body of water having sufficient depth. In addition, the pond should not freeze to the bottom, where it will be located external loop of the system. For this purpose, the area of the reservoir may not be less than 200 square meters.
This accommodation of the heat exchanger is considered the least expensive, but such an arrangement of homeownership is still not common. In addition, difficulties may arise, if the pond belongs to the objects of common use, the Obvious advantage of this method is the lack of mandatory time-consuming excavation work, although with the underwater location of the reservoir will still have some trouble. And special permission for such activities is also needed. However, geothermal installation, using the energy of water, after all, is the most economical.Their hands: what
If we installed geothermal heating with his own hands, the external circuit is better to buy ready-made. Of course, we consider only how the horizontal location of the external heat exchanger under the soil surface or under water. Vertical borehole collector to assemble much more difficult if you don't have the equipment and skills drilling.
The heat pump is not too oversized equipment. In your home it will not take much space. Because in size it is comparable, for example, with a conventional solid-fuel boiler. To connect the internal circuit of your home – task is not difficult. Actually is exactly the same as the organization of heating using conventional sources of heat. The main difficulty – a device external circuit.
This location of the house regarding pond is more common. Importantly, the reservoir was no further than 100 metres from the cottage the Best option would be to use the reservoir, if such exists at a distance of not more than 100 meters. It is necessary that its area exceeded 200 square meters, and the depth is 3 meters, the components of the average parameter of freezing. If this pond does not belong to you, the problem may be getting permission to use it.
If the pond is the pond that is you have owned, the case is simplified. Water from the pond can be temporarily drained. Then work on the bottom of it can be performed easily: it is necessary to lay the pipe in a spiral, securing them in this position. Earthworks will only need to dig a trench that will need to attach the external circuit to the heat pump.
After completing all works, the pond can be filled with water. In the next hundred years the external heat exchanger should work properly and not cause any trouble to its owner.
If your possession of the land on which you only have to build a house and raise a garden, it makes sense to plan horizontal ground heat exchanger type. This should make a preliminary calculation of the area of the future reservoir, based on parameters that are already listed above: 250-300 square meters of collector per 100 square meters of heated area of the house.
If you got land without buildings and vegetation that would keep soil in the construction of the outer horizontal contour of the soil can simply be removed: it's easier than digging the trench the Trench in which to lay the pipe circuit, it is necessary to excavate below the level of soil freezing. Better yet, just remove the soil to a depth of its freezing, to lay the pipe, and then bring the soil in place. The work is time-consuming, difficult, but having a great desire and determination, you will be able to do it.Costs and prospects of recoupment of
the Costs of the equipment and its installation in the construction of geothermal heating depend on the power unit and from the manufacturer. Manufacturer one chooses, guided by their own thoughts and information about the reputation and reliability of any brand. But the power depends on the area of the premises, which will serve.
This figure summarizes the whole essence of the benefits derived from the use of geothermal heating systems. It is the ratio of outgoing and incoming energy allows the system first quickly recouped, and then to save money of its owner, If to take into account is the power, the cost of heat pumps varies in the following ranges:
- on 4-5 kW – 3000-7000 units;
- 5-10 kW 4000-8000 units;
- 10-15 kW 5000-10000 units.
If to this sum we add the cost that is needed for installation (20-40%), we get the amount that for many will seem absolutely unreal. But all these expenses will pay off in quite a reasonable time. In future you will have to pay only minor costs for the electricity needed for pump operation. And that's all!
Due to insufficient heating of residential buildings efficiency geothermal systems use them as a Supplement to the main heating networks or construct a complex with two or more heat exchangers As practice shows, geothermal heating is especially advantageous for homes total heated area of which is 150 square meters. Five to eight years, all the costs of the heating systems in these houses are fully repaid.Video about the principles and results of operation
If you find it easier to perceive visual information, then this video will allow you to see, how exactly does a geothermal system, as well as to learn more about who and why this type of heating is best.
We offer you to watch a short video in which the owner of a horizontal subsurface collector, will talk about his impressions of its operation. In addition, watch this video, you will learn about the current costs associated with the operation of the geothermal heating system.
Every owner of a private house chooses whether to buy him the services of energy supply companies or to rely only on himself. It takes a whole list of reasons. The task we have set ourselves, is not to push you to the finished output, and to share information about the solution of the problem facing you. published