"The genius of pure beauty" — so said about "Sistine Madonna" Vasily Zhukovsky.Later Pushkin borrowed this image and dedicated it to earth woman — Anna Kern. Rafael also wrote Madonna with a real person, probably with your own mistress
1 MADONNA. Some researchers believe that the image of the virgin Raphael wrote with his mistress Margherita Luti. According to local art historian Sergei stahma, "in the eyes of the Sistine Madonna frozen the immediate openness and trust, passionate love and tenderness and yet suspicion and anxiety, indignation and horror of human sin; indecision and at the same time, the willingness to perform the feat (to give his son to death. — Approx. "Around the world")".
2 THE CHRIST CHILD. According to stahma, "his forehead is not childishly high, and it is not unusually serious, his eyes. However, in their eyes we do not see any edification, or forgiveness or reconciliatory comfort... His eyes looked at the opened front of them the world is closely, stress, bewilderment, and fear". And yet in the sight of Christ, read the determination to follow the will of God the Father resolve to sacrifice himself for the salvation of mankind.
3 SIXTUS II. On the Roman Pontiff very little is known. On the Holy throne he spent a short time with 257 for 258 year — and was executed under the Emperor Valerian by beheading. Saint Sixtus was the patron of the Italian papal kind of Rover (ital. for "oak"). Therefore, in his Golden gown embroidered with acorns and oak leaves.
4 THE HANDS OF SIXT. Rafael wrote the Holy Pope pointing his right hand at the feast day of crucifixion (recall that the "Sistine Madonna" hanging behind the altar and, respectively, for the altar cross). It is curious that the hand of the Pontiff, the artist has drawn six fingers, another six, encoded in the picture. The left hand of the high priest pressed to his chest — as a sign of devotion to the virgin Mary.
5 removed the PAPAL TIARA from the head of the Pontiff as a sign of respect before Madonna. Tiara has three crowns, symbolizing the Kingdom of the Father, Son, and Holy spirit. It is crowned by an acorn is the heraldic symbol of a kind Rover.
6 Saint BARBARA was the patron Saint of Piacenza. This Holy the III century a secret from my father-pagan turned to faith in Jesus. The father was tortured and beheaded, the daughter of a renegade.
7 CLOUD. Some believe that Raphael painted the clouds in the form of angels singing. In fact, according to the teachings of the Gnostics, it is not the angels, and the unborn souls that are in heaven and praise God.
8 ANGELS. Two angels at the bottom of the picture dispassionately looking into the distance. Their apparent indifference is a symbol of acceptance of the inevitability of divine Providence: Christ ordained the cross, and the fate he can not change.
9 OPENED the CURTAIN symbolizes the heavens opened up. Its green color indicates the mercy of God the Father who sent the son to die for the salvation of men.
Pushkin borrowed the poetic formula from older contemporary and drew her to earth female Anna Kern. However, this transfer is relatively natural: Rafael may wrote Madonna's real character, private mistress.
*** In the beginning of XVI century Rome waged a difficult war with France for the possession of the Northern lands of Italy. In General, luck was on the side of the papal forces, and the Northern Italian cities one after another went over to the Roman Pontiff. In 1512 did and Piacenza is a town 60 kilometers South-East from Milan. For Pope Julius II Piacenza was something more than just a new territory: here was the monastery of Saint Sixtus, the patron Saint of kind of Rover, which belonged to the Pontiff. To celebrate Julius II decided to thank the monks (who actively campaigned for the annexation to Rome) and ordered Raphael Santi (by that time the acknowledged master) saltany the way in which the virgin Mary is the Holy Sixtus. Raphael ordering much: he was allowed to cram the film with characters that are important to the artist.
The painter was gnostica — a supporter of religious currents of late antiquity, who relied on the old Testament, Eastern mythology, and a number of early Christian doctrines. Gnostics of all magic numbers are particularly honored six (it was on the sixth day, according to their doctrine, God created Jesus), and Sixtus just translates to "sixth." Rafael decided to play this match. Therefore, compositional pattern, according to Italian art historian Matteo's fizzie, encrypts a six: it consists of six pieces, which together form a hexagon.
Work on the "Madonna" was completed in 1513, until 1754, the painting was in the convent of St. Sixtus, until it was bought by the Saxon elector Augustus III 20 000 pieces (almost 70 kilograms of gold). Before the Second world "the Sistine Madonna" was in the gallery of Dresden. But in 1943, the Nazis hid the painting in the gallery, where, after a long search she was found by Soviet soldiers. So the creation of Raphael was in the Soviet Union.
In 1955, the "Sistine Madonna" together with many other paintings removed from Germany, was returned to the authorities of the GDR and is now in the Dresden gallery.
ARTIST Rafael Santi 1483 Born in Urbino in the family of the artist.
1500 — Began teaching at the art workshop of Pietro Perugino. Signed the first contract for the establishment of the altar of the image of "the Coronation of St. Nicholas of Tolentino".
1504-1508 Lived in Florence, where he met Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Created the first Madonnas — the Madonna of Granduca" and "Madonna with scheglenkom".
1508-1514 Worked on the murals in the papal Palace (the school of Athens fresco", "plagued by the Apostle Peter from prison", etc.), painted the portrait of Pope Julius II. Received the post of scribe of papal decrees.
1512-1514 — Wrote "the Sistine Madonna" and "Madonna di Foligno ".
1515 — he was appointed chief Keeper of antiquities of the Vatican. Wrote the "Madonna in the chair. 1520 — Died in Rome.
Photo: BRIDGEMAN/FOTODOM.EN, DIOMEDIA