It is difficult to discuss the topic of genetically modified foods, because we don't really know how they affect the human body, they are not so long exist in this world to bring conclusive evidence in their favor or Vice versa. However, we do not need to wait several decades to see how products containing GMOs will affect our healthy diet, because they are already causing enough problems, so we other ways to prove that they are not worth our attention.
Let's take a sober look at the situation and not giving any of the parties preferences, define core problems that are now creating transgenic crops.
10. The emergence of superweeds and supervigilancia thing — the creation of plants with their own insecticide gene, it eliminates a lot of unwanted errors. The disadvantage is that only the strongest survive insects, resulting in a new class of superficiales (1), resistant to two toxins: embedded and a spray.
In 2011, scientists examined 13 major pests and found that five of them were immune to the poisons genetically created in GM plants like Bt-corn and Bt-cotton. In addition, farmers are struggling with weeds supervisorname who do not respond to the herbicide sold as Roundup which lies at the heart of glyphosate. As a result, to combat these superweeds, farmers are forced to use even more chemicals. According to a peer-reviewed journal "Environmental Sciences Europe" (2) that GM crops increase use of herbicides by 25 percent annually.
What sometimes confuses people is the fact that according to the data for the first few years of growing GM crops, farmers actually in need of small amount of chemicals. However, once the pests and weeds develop immunity, farmers have nothing left as more spraying of herbicides and pesticides, which effectively increases material costs and genetic pollution.
9. The death of bees and babockami of the touted benefits of genetically modified crops is that weed only kills pests that supposedly leads to the increase of the crop. Unfortunately, the methods used by biotechnology companies for the protection of crops from pests is also a suspect in the murder of a vital and beneficial insects such as bees (3) butterflies (4). On first consideration it may seem that you don't have to closely pay attention to the lives of some annoying insects, but this is shortsighted thinking, the disappearance of pollinating insects may ultimately lead to the collapse of the receipt of food. This is because the insects pollinate one third of food crops (bees, 80 percent of that number). Thus, instead of solving the problems of shortage of food, genetically modified foods actually can only aggravate what is happening.
So why are producers of GMOs were allowed to grow their crops which kill butterflies and bees? Unfortunately, liquid insecticides, fungicides, genetically modified crops and powerful means of weeds present in modern agriculture, it's really hard to prove the guilt of one of the variables which are GMO. Because one study proves that GM crops are a problem, another study claims that they are completely safe. Meanwhile, the bee population continues to decline at a rate of 30 percent a year and populations of butterflies reached a record low.
Although it is unclear whether harmful GM crops by their very nature, beneficial insects, at least they perpetuated the massive use of chemicals (5), which are positively harmful insects and weeds on which they depend (e.g., butterflies which lay eggs on the milkweed).
8. Farmers can't collect seeds
Fundamentally, agriculture is a simple process: plant seeds grow crops, harvested their crops and collect the seeds for next season. Unfortunately, these GMO companies like Monsanto makes farmers a final step, thereby increasing the costs even more, forcing farmers to always buy at a special price of genetically modified seeds each growing season. In fact, as demonstrated by the case of litigation between Bowman and Monsanto, the US will be illegal to collect seeds of any crops Monsanto and use them later. The case of Bowman went all the way trial courts to the Supreme court and despite the public outcry, 70-year-old farmer was unanimously found guilty of patent infringement after he purchased (without knowing it) and used the second-generation Monsanto seeds (6).
The prohibition of farmers to collect the seeds really mean that large corporations will eventually be able to gain full control over seeds in the world, on their demand and prices. Currently, just three mega companies control over half the global seed market, which allows prices to skyrocket upwards. For example, the average price of soybeans sold for planting have increased from 1995 to 325 percent. It gets even worse when you consider that Monsanto has developed and owns the patent on the "terminator gene", which can make seeds sterile, but don't worry, they promised not to use this technology (7).
7. Cross-pollination of cultures contributes to their genetic ZAGRYaZNENIYa of the major concerns — GM crops are difficult to contain, which means that they will be extremely difficult to get rid of after that, if we decide that they were a bad idea. Scientists have yet to find a way to control cross-pollination, because no matter how diligent the farmer is using only organic fertilizers will adhere to natural methods of cultivation, he will not be able to get rid of wind-blown pollen from neighboring farms, fertilization and transformation of cultures in the hybrids (8). Although quite easy to reduce this pollution for some plants with other crops like rapeseed and corn is almost impossible.
First, Monsanto and other companies have argued that cross-pollination would not be a problem if the farm had sufficient experience and was prepared in this matter, but as it turned out, that wasn't enough, when they found that pollen can spread much further than expected (a few kilometers or more) (9). As the popularity of GM crops is growing, it may happen that we will not be able to choose between them eating or not eating, as all the plants are "infected". Even buying food with an organic label will not give you, as some governing institutions, such as the Ministry of agriculture of the USA, will not remove the status of organic farms, if a few plants will cross-opylene GM crops.
6. Will be illegal if you happen to grow up unauthorized GM-restricated, is the main flaw — how to regulate GM crops. On the one hand, they are illegal if you don't buy them for every season directly from the official distributor, but on the other hand, the seeds and pollen of these plants flying everywhere. What will happen to the farmer because of cross pollination inadvertently bred a culture of Monsanto? While Monsanto has never sued the person who left a small amount of GMOs that he did not buy, they have sued farmers who claimed to have accidentally cultivated a large number of patented crops.
For example, Percy Schmeiser, a 74-year-old canadian canola farmer was sued from Monsanto when it was discovered that his crop contained a large number of patented Roundup Ready gene. Schmeiser said he didn't know how his fields became contaminated, but he suspected it was because of the neighboring farm, which grew GM crops. Anyway, the court sided with Monsanto, said Schmeiser "knew or should have known" (10) that its seeds were resistant to the herbicide Roundup.
Aggravates the next case, farmers often buy "commodity" bins, in which, as a rule, there is a mixture of different seeds, including GMO farms. So, if a farmer grows Monsanto seeds, which were randomly mixed with the rest of the seeds, and then he got a crop of these seeds, he can be sued for non-payment of royalties to the GMO giant. This is exactly what happened between Vernon Bowman and Monsanto (11).
5. High performance samoistselenie the economy is always a gamble, especially in countries such as India, where farmers heavily rely on the monsoon season to provide enough water their crops. If the monsoon does not happen, then how do they survive? For this reason, and because of many other socio-economic problems, the number of suicides among Indian farmers just any high level (about 1,000 per month). GM crops exacerbate the situation, as desperate farmers borrow money at extortionate fees to pay for "magic" GM seeds, which unfortunately require two times more water and do not meet the requirements when dealing with pests. When boxed the worms continue to destroy the plants or the monsoon does not bring enough water, hopeless farmers crushed by debt, do not see other exit how to drink a glass of poison.
Despite the fact that since the introduction of GM crops in India has occurred more than 125,000 suicides and as reported in the New York Times article, ridiculously high prices for seeds and pesticides make farmers spend less money than ever. (12) in addition, pests and weeds are becoming more resistant to insecticides, farmers are forced to spend more and more money on chemicals. And let's not forget, they are also legally obliged to buy new seed each season if they don't want to be sued or burned all cultures.
While Monsanto sticks to its history of growth of productivity in agricultural cultures, there are many who disagree, including the Ministry of agriculture of India. The Ministry reports that Bt-cotton Monsanto were successful during the first five years, and now is no better than any other culture. It blames GMOs in involvement to suicides among farmers growing cotton. In 2012 a group of scientists on the basis of the decision of the Supreme court of India recommended a 10-year moratorium on field trials of all GM crops until a thorough study and will not be imposed more stringent rules. It is unclear whether it will agree to the government or not.
4. The lack of state majorizable that "superficiale" generated by GMO crops can be avoided if farmers have used safe methods of agriculture. However, the lack of training and resources means that many farmers do not follow the technique of "shelters" and superradical continue to multiply.Additionally, while 64 countries, including China and the European Union requires labeling of genetically modified foods, USA (largest manufacturer of GM crops) still do not have such laws. This makes it incredibly difficult for people who do not want to consume genetically modified food products, since many do not even know when they are eating GMOs. For example, the Ministry of agriculture says 94% of soy and 75% of corn grown in the U.S. are genetically modified. Americans are eating a lot more GMOs than they think. In addition, most cattle are fed these modified products that fall into the meat.
3. The boomerang between the government and biotechnological GMO opponents scream about the dangers of "Frankenfoods", biotechnology companies assure that scientific research suggests that genetically modified food is perfectly safe. It is very difficult to understand the endless contradictory information, but there is one fact that should raise the eyebrows of even the most neutral party: a former lawyer and Vice President of Monsanto, Michael Taylor, currently holds the position of Deputy Commissioner in the Management of quality control food and drug administration (FDA). Taylor has also held positions in the Ministry of agriculture of the USA and it is often criticized for the fact that he is a "revolving door" between the public and private sector (13).
Even those who are not inclined to conspiracy theories, can not help but wonder if Taylor took a position at the FDA because of its attraction to food safety and civil service or he does have ulterior motives to protect the interests of agribusiness representatives. It's all difficult and is really difficult to trust the FDA when they say that genetically modified foods have no risks than their natural counterparts. Confidence falls even more, considering that in 90 years, FDA scientists warned that modified products differ significantly from their counterparts and can lead to "different risks" (14) in comparison with conventional products. For some reason, these findings are not consistent with official policy.
2. Damage to biodiversity
Biological diversity-or biodiversity-understand the diversity of life forms in a specific region or the world as a whole. Conservation of biodiversity is important because every living thing plays a key role in the cycle of life in which we also participate and use it.
Industrial agriculture reduces biodiversity because of the agricultural company clearing the land for their plants and focusing on producing only one type of culture. This large-scale monocultural crop production has led to a 75 percent reduction of plant diversity since the 1900s years. (15) GM farm worse, because they not only grow one type of plant (e.g., corn, soy, rice), but all plants within this class due to a single source modified plants are genetically identical. This uniformity of crops is of concern as it makes our products particularly sensitive to climate change, disease and pests. And this affects not only the biological diversity of plants. As already mentioned, insects such as bees and butterflies are already suffering, and herbicides known to cause birth defects and the reduction of populations of amphibians, birds, soil organisms and marine ecosystems.
Companies such as Monsanto, moreover, prevents biodiversity, systematically buying up other seed companies and replace conventional varieties genetically modified counterparts, selling them at a higher price. While some argue that the ultimate goal of Monsanto is to control all food in the world, but most likely their main goal is just getting higher profits. In the end, they get much more money selling their expensive patented seeds that must be bought every season, in comparison with quality of traditional seeds.
1. Distract from healthy, environmentally friendly technologyone of the main principles of GM companies to promote them on the leading places in modern agriculture — it promises to prevent the global food crisis and feed the hungry in Africa and in other countries. However, these promises have not been implemented as GM crops are highly variable and many countries just don't want their food had been obtained in the laboratory.
Indeed in 1998, 24 delegates from 18 African countries reported the Food and agriculture organization of the UN (16): "We strongly object to the way the poor and hungry from our countries being used by giant multinational corporations to push a technology that is neither safe, nor environmentally friendly, nor economically beneficial to us. We believe that such companies or gene technologies will help our farmers to produce food that we need in the 21st century. On the contrary, we believe that it will destroy the diversity, local knowledge and sustainable agricultural systems that our farmers have developed for millennia and that it will also undermine our ability to feed ourselves."
So if GM is not the solution, then how should we feed a growing world population? Fortunately, there are many viable solutions advocated by farmers and researchers. For example, as reported in the 1996 national research Council of the United States, there are currently many cultures (17), such as millet, fonio and African rice that are nutritious, delicious and grow well in harsh climates. In addition, environmentally friendly, low water use method of agriculture like system of rice intensification (improves rice production by 50-100 per cent) is already used as a model for growing other crops on a sustainable basis. (18) Other ideas include the decentralization of agriculture, urban agriculture, building greenhouses on top of grocery stores, the use of aquaponics and much more. (19) Diversion of funds and resources from GMOs will help to flourish one or more of these natural and useful methods.
18. sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/ published
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©