Rules of conduct for hypothermia and frostbite - useful rules that you have to remember

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As expected, Christmas came to us cold. And if even with the breeze, but the humidity is high... Countryside, ski trips and other winter fun in these conditions is fraught with trouble if you do not take care of themselves properly. Not to spoil the holidays with unnecessary problems, I suggest to remember how to protect yourself from hypothermia and frostbite, and what to do if such a disaster still happened.

By the way, if you think only the threat of extreme low temperatures, I have to disappoint you: the problem may occur even when the thermometer slightly below zero.

It's only a matter of time and circumstances. And not necessarily frosty night to fall asleep drunk on a Park bench. M

you can get into a severe Blizzard during a ski trip, or wet feet in winter, or to be in the car with a dead engine somewhere on the deserted highway; Yes, just lightly dressed not in season, going to a party or an important date...

None of us is immune from unpleasant contingencies, but the winner is always the one who knows how to solve the problem.

Frostbite: how to recognize and what dilatata probably still at school crammed: if the cold nose (cheek, finger, any other part of the body) was white — we're in trouble. The cold caused a spasm of blood vessels, blood to the frostbitten area is not received, and if time does not take action, it could trigger changes in the tissues. In severe cases — irreversible.

With the same school we remember that the affected area need to grind. And here attention! — most of us forgets a very important word: GENTLY. Dedicated to crashed into consciousness, is deposited in the brain and certainly surfaced in my memory at the right time. You can gently massage the damaged area or to warm him with warm hands but no violent rubbing with coarse gloves or snow! So long, and the skin to tear or damage the fragile blood vessels. And our goal is quite different.

We need to warm that frostbitten. Gradually, slowly, so as not to trigger complications. Ideally, it is urgent to go from the streetinto a warm room. Just do not immediately grab a hot battery or put my feet in a basin of hot water — if you do not want in addition to frostbite make money burn, of course. Remember: devoid of sensitivity the skin does not perceive and does not transmit to the brain signals about external stimuli, so to recognize a dangerous temperature, you will not be able to.

It is useful to drink hot teato keep warm. Not be amiss to take painkillers: when the sensitivity frostbitten area will recover, you will see bright and unforgettable feelings, without which it is possible to do, if you take a pill dipyrone or two tablets but-shpy. Also recommend aspirin (1 tablet) — it helps to normalize the disturbed circulation.

But alcohol is better to abstain. In any case, RUB the site of frostbite alcohol (as well as oil, grease and similar substances) should not be. As for the intake... Opinions are divided, but let's remember this: reaction to alcohol is individual and what one can help the other can cause considerable damage (especially if the victim of any chronic disease). Do not experiment with health.

If far from home, and shelter from the cold no place, it is necessary to warm the victim and to restore circulation of the affected area, using the opportunities that are there. Breed the fire (just remember what said above: it is necessary to heat SLOWLY and very CAREFULLY!), get a thermos ofhot drink, gently RUB the site of frostbite and are trying to protect it from exposure to the cold (to put on dry stuff is wet and icy; to wind the damaged place with a scarf or other warm clothing, and so on). In any case, moving in the direction of accommodation!

Frostbite klassificeret on the severity of the lesion. It is clear that the necessary measures will depend on how big a health threat. But the difficulty is that the signs by which we can determine the depth of the problem, already evident after warming. Therefore, I repeat: warm the frostbitten area can only slowly and carefully. So, remember the signs:
When blood flow is restored, the skin at the injury site becomes red (the intensity varies from a mild redness to the appearance of purple-red spots); often a noticeable swelling.

Feels burning and pain, which can be both weak and pronounced depending on the characteristics of the body of the victim. After a few days (from 2-3 to 7) all passes may remain only a slight peeling of the skin.

As a rule, seek medical help in such cases is not necessary.

Characterized by the appearance filled with clear liquid blisters on the affected area of the body. The skin is red, there is swelling.

At the site of injury there is pain, burning, itching. In General, the prognosis is usually favorable: after 1-2 weeks the skin will fully recover.

But if struck by a large area of the body, or the hurt child, an elderly or a sick, weak person, do not neglect a visit to the doctor.

Now that's serious: damage to the affected soft tissue, and frostbite almost certainly left scars. The skin after rewarming becomes purple-blue, swollen; the contents of bubbles — spotting, dark brown. In the early days, the damaged area can remain insensitive, then there are severe pain, often long lasting. Affected tissues die, is their rejection, and this process will last up to 3 weeks. Then the wounds will heal up (if there were no complications). Appeal for medical help in such cases.
Affects not only the skin and soft tissue, but often even the bones and joints. Bubbles is no longer here — there is severe swelling and complete loss of sensation in the affected area. The details in this case to anything; God forbid you never with such did not face, but if it happens — immediately to the nearest hospital. No options.

Hypothermia: the first signs and help petrogasenergy the dangers that await us in the winter — hypothermia (General cooling) of the body. The consequences can be different — until the tragic, so it's important to notice the problem early and correctly to help the victim.

Standing outside in the cold season, pay attention to yourself and to others. If you notice that the person next to you shaking with chills, breathing heavily, the skin in the nasolabial triangle he's cyanotic, don't overlook: likely to need help.

If the process has not gone too far, the victim may be agitated, hyperactive. But when the body temperature drops to +32...+34 degrees, the excitement gives way to lethargy and apathy. At this stage (it is called dinamicheskoi) noticeable stiffness; it is difficult. Can cause minor frostbite. Without help the person not to leave, and if there was no one, as it will quickly deteriorate.

Next — stuporous stage more profound changes in the body. Pressure drops, breathing becomes rare and superficial, blood circulation is disturbed. The victim is in a stupor; in speech it does not react, to move independently. Skin feels cold, looks pale, "marble". Can be frostbite of varying severity.

In severe hypothermia comes the third stage — convulsions, or coma: the person loses consciousness, body temperature and blood pressure drops to critical values. If the victim in the emergency order are not given medical help, it's all over, most likely, fatal.

What to do?

In any case, the first thing is to stop further cooling.

To help to get to the nearest warm room (if the victim to move alone can not, is to move it to the shelter);

change into dry clothes;

wrap a blanket act on the situation, using what is at hand.

The next step is to call an ambulance. Independently assess the degree of damage and to predict the consequences of hypothermia you will hardly manage, so it is better to entrust it to professionals. Until the doctor arrived, our task is to help the victim warm andto prevent his condition deteriorated.

Especially pay your attention to the last paragraph, because the wrong actions can hurt people, to cause serious complications. For example, trying to warm the frozen, prepared you a hot bath, tidy there it was loaded... and didn't take into account that comrade weak blood vessels or heart. Wanted to help — got a complication with acute cardiovascular failure.

So no Amateur, especially if the process has gone too far.

If victim is conscious and able to swallow, you can (and should) get him a drink of hot tea (or just hot water but not coffee!).

Alcohol (in small doses — not more than 100 g of vodka!) valid only in the case if we are talking about a healthy adult person who is already warm and a little warmed up; it is categorically impossible to give alcohol to children; the elderly and sick people; victims with severe hypothermia. And in any case — in the cold!

It is possible to fill with warm water hot water bottles or even plastic bottles and impose their person (just make sure the water is not hot). In a bath of warm water can be located only after the condition of the victim will come to a relative norm.

In this case, note: the water temperature should not exceed body temperature more than 10-15 degrees, and increase it only very gradually (up to 5-7 degrees per hour).

Of course, until the ambulance comes, you need to be with the victims and monitor its condition, especially if the person is unconscious. And best of all — to be prudent and to prevent similar troubles happened to you or someone of your loved ones.

How to avoid frostbite and переохлаждения1. Dress for the season. That's corny, Yes? However, we often this rule is neglected — whether for reasons of convenience, or for the sake of fashion (as my grandmother used to say: "Shiver and force here," the familiar, right?) Well Yes, the car is not too comfortable in the bulky jacket — so who prevents to take it off when the car warms up? And the shoes thin soles cold to wear is not required: the machine can break, and its frivolity would be long and bitterly regret.

2. Do not go outside in the cold if you were drinking heavily. Another commonplace, which would be a shame even to write, if annually in hospitals and morgues were not the ones who about this rule forgotten. Alcohol creates the illusions: you feel that heat, when in fact the body is rapidly cooled. And it is unlikely that you will be able to catch (and prevent) the moment when the situation gets out of control completely.

3. Do not smoke in the cold. Understand that smokers is just wave his hand, and yet... the Peripheral circulation under the influence of nicotine is violated, there are spasms of the small vessels, and your hands and feet freeze much faster, even with a slight cold.

4. Wear loose layered clothing. Tight shoes and clothes — a sure way to disturb the circulation. The consequences of this are clear. To dress "like a cabbage", going on winter walks, is a very good idea. Between things retained a layer of air which will provide additional insulation.

5. Always wear in the cold mittens, hat and scarf. Especially difficult to explain this rule is teenagers (I know firsthand!). But you can also pick up a trendy, stylish accessory — and not risk their health for the sake of a spectacular appearance.

6. Move! Being winter outside, don't stand in one place too long. You feel that you start to freeze, — pritoptyvaya, flap their hands, jump, squat, or Yes, even dance, and no matter what others think: health is worth more than the opinions of strangers.

If you are going to rest in the winter out of town, plan an active vacation and play in the snow, skiing, build a snow fortress — move! Then better sit warm by the fireplace, remembering how fun it was on the walk))

7. Don't forget a thermos of hot drink, if you're going on a ski trip or go on a long drive. Spare warm socks and gloves (mittens) will also not excessive.

8. Avoid metal objects. The metal cooled quickly, so the usual jewelry in the bitter cold can cause frostbite — remember this. And do not grasp the metal railings and things like that with your bare hands, there is a risk of injury.

9. Hide from the wind. Even if the frost is not so great, strong wind is easy to frostbite.

And again. Most important, perhaps. Please be considerate of people who are near you! People do not always able to observe the approach of trouble: and frostbite, and hypothermia sneaks up quietly. Your neighbor at the bus stop, probably, does not feel that he was white cheek — tell him about it, and he escaped with only minor discomfort. Fallen in the street the person is not necessarily drunk "drunk" (even if drunk, that's no reason to leave him to freeze to death, you will agree!) — walk up to him or attract the attention of other people to the problem. Do not hesitate to ask for help if you suddenly felt unwell, standing outside in the cold. Better to prevent a problem, than then heroically to struggle with the consequences, right?..



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