Healthy immunity: hygiene theory and the theory of "old friends"

Today, I will discuss the evolutionary aspect of healthy life — a healthy immune system, it relates to resource sustainability. So, the increasing global incidence of allergic and autoimmune diseases. The paradox is that she is somehow uniquely in the developed countries. And yet for some reason much stronger in cities than in rural areas both in terms of the same country and in the world. This fact has long been interested in and have long been trying to unearth the patterns and causes of growth. Moreover, the pattern of this dynamic: people from underdeveloped countries suffer from immune disease is rare, but when they move to developed countries, the probability of disease increases dramatically. Because people are the same, you can discard the genetic explanation. Villagers fall ill less citizens. Children from large families — less the only children. And the people who lived in pre-industrial times, was sick less than our contemporaries.

These epidemiological observations have led to the emergence of the idea that excessive cleanliness (or rather, decrease in the diversity of antigens encountered organism) harmful to health. Under antigens we understand any substance that is recognized by the immune system. The cause was found simultaneously in several countries at once, then checked and rechecked, were retrospectively (that is, digging in the history) and prospective (i.e., observing a few years) research on small groups and large populations. The fact that the technological revolution has overtaken natural very hard and sharp. We have long had the ability not straining to hold the baby in an almost sterile environment, the immune system still be sure that after having it wrapped up in a dirty flea-bitten skin and put on filled with worms and worm eggs in the ground, which the child as they learn to crawl, be sure to pull in the mouth, after eating and earth, and worms, and fleas, and the remnants of the poop unimaginable variety of creatures. After birth the immune system of the newborn — Yes, weak, Yes, immature, but she is ready to meet the enemy. Lots of dangerous enemies that need to penetrate everywhere, and especially through the skin and mucous membranes. And the enemy is, then no, because mom is usually good, stroking the diaper with the two sides of the iron and disinfects everything it touches baby. And here in this place there is a "failure", we also need to find the enemy, it just is, it can not be! And the immune system regards harmless enemies and, by default, usually harmless substances: certain food components and get rid of anything it is impossible even in a modern apartment: dust, dust mites and their leftovers, a variety of microscopic fungi, pollen, all sorts of tiny remnants of household chemicals, dust down and feathers from pillows and so on. Only here given that these particles actually do not harm anyone and multiply in the body somehow don't think that runs a modified response, not like an infection, and an allergic. The hygienic theory of the origin of autoimmune diseases All started with the fact that in 1989, an epidemiologist from the London David Strachan published in the British Medical Journal article "hay fever, hygiene and household size" (Hay fever, hygiene, and household size). The article, based on his research, he makes the following conclusion: the more the child has siblings, the less likely that it will have allergic rhinitis (runny nose). This pattern Strachan interpreted as: "This, however, can be explained by the fact that the development of allergic diseases have been prevented, transferred in early childhood, infectious diseases, infection which occurs through unhygienic contacts with older siblings..." the Article ends with these words: "Over the past century, reducing the size of families, improved household amenities and higher standards of personal hygiene reduced the risk of cross-infection in young families. This might have led to a greater prevalence of allergic diseases..." Soon after the emergence of the theory of the influence of hygiene was used by many scientists to explain the greater prevalence of allergic diseases in developed industrialized countries compared to developing countries. Further application of the theory of the influence of hygiene became more widespread. The increase in the number of autoimmune diseases (multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease) in young people in developed countries also became associated with hygiene. Confirmation of this hypothesis are the results of the analysis of the health status of children living on farms. Children growing up in large families with constant contact with animals, products of combustion of wood and coal, significant humidity of premises receiving simplified nutrition, and most importantly, non-passive smokers on my mother's side, had no symptoms of atopic disease. Why is this so? All this is because the immune system is not a stable factory, from birth equipped with everything necessary. She is "training", fine-tuning. Learning to identify the dangerous from the harmless. If antigens are few, the lack of "educational material" does not allow the immune system to fully Mature and to keep it working. Therefore, rural children or children from poor countries, not in contact with 2 types of animals (cats and dogs), 3 species of birds (crows, sparrows and pigeons) and 4 types of grass (bluegrass, Timofeeva, dill and hemp), and with tens and hundreds, have the advantage that their immune system is better configured, and in adulthood produces fewer failures. The theory of "old friends" and a healthy immune system, In 2003 Graham Rook proposed the hypothesis of "old friends", children infection that children get sick at least for ten thousand years, playing an important role in setting up a healthy immune system. The changes that she made in the old hygienic theory is that for fine tuning and harmonious development of regulatory mechanisms of immunity are important not all antigens of the environment, and especially "old friends" — microorganisms and parasites that have low pathogenicity (harmfulness) and long co-exist with mankind in a relationship. So the diversity of available herbs is not so important, but the diversity of the residents and visitors of the intestine is of great importance. This hypothesis was confirmed experimentally: mice exposed to gut bacteria (inactivated strains of the tubercle Bacillus or other pathogenic bacteria), were protected from development of diabetes type 1 (it is also autoimmune, if anyone knows). And distribution in the population of worms has been shown to be beneficial for the evolution of the mediators of inflammation associated with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and celiac disease. And here and there was a selfish idea, as old friends to use. Got a scientific justification for the use of probiotics. As minimally sane hedgehog it should be clear that the useful bacteria from yogurt to it in the intestines for all to live will not migrate, and the benefits and enjoy the yogurt there, it was high time to explain. Well, that's what the products contain harmless, though, and alien microorganisms that allow the immune system to be in good shape, to train at a safe target and do not get bored and do stupid things. By the way, what are the effects of preparations of lactobacilli are not associated with the "settling" of the intestine confirmed the hilarious, I think, by the fact that their beneficial influence on the course of colitis and arthritis retained when subcutaneous injection instead of oral. Tips for parents 1. Pets are welcome. In families where in the first five years of life were the Pets, the number of children with allergies has been sharply reduced. And the more animals (or the more they were in size), the less you have allergies! And the beast at the house in the first year of a child's life was the most effective "cure" for allergies in these children in the future, from the second to the fifth year of life — less effective, and after the fifth year of life already had value, it was the family pet or not. 2. Happens outside the city, go at least for the summer and let the baby crawl and run around and touch anything. So, the American study showed that children in the first year of life is often exposed to animal dander, allergens and normal household bacteria are less likely to develop asthma, allergies and bronchial obstruction. The results were published in the "Journal of Allergy and clinical immunology" (Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology). 3. Avoid excess use of detergents and microbicides. Children who at an early age had contact with animal dander, cockroach secretions and bacteria, to three years was more healthy. Was even proven cumulative protective effect: the greater the number of allergens, interacted with the child, the lower the risk of his asthma and allergies. Of those children that were healthy to the end of the study, 41% in the first year of life growing up in homes with lots of allergens and bacteria; but in such conditions lived only 8 % of children who experience allergies and breathing problems 4. Calmer attitude to children's lungs diseases. After a refresher, the child often stanovitsya more resistant to many diseases. So, propolisa animals with rotavirus in childhood have lower risk of diabetes first type. Reducing the number of childhood diseases in developed countries has increased the frequency of bronchial testmy 10%. published Author Andrey Blueskin

P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©

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