It is no secret that over time the potato degenerates: it loses its varietal quality, reduced disease resistance, reduced productivity, deteriorating the storability. And it happens, unfortunately, pretty quickly. For good, every 5-7 years, the gardener is necessary to completely renew potato varieties on his plot.
But really high quality seed potatoes (mini-tubers, super-elite and elite) is worth a lot of money. For this reason, we need to learn to update grades his own potatoes to use for planting super-elite tubers "own production". Today we offer you to familiarize yourself with five ways to update potato planting material.
Let's start with the terminology which is used by growers to determine the age of planting potatoes. So, in the first year after growing from seed (or meristem) produces mini-tubers. In the second year, a super-super-elite, 3 year super-elite 4 — elite 5 was the first reproduction, etc.
What we buy in the market, in the best case, the third reproduction, and probably seventh or eighth. It is not surprising that a couple of years a new variety is already indistinguishable from the old. So to try and master at least one way of obtaining high-quality tubers is necessary for everyone who grows potatoes on his land. Method 1: planting potatoes from seed
Over the years of growing potatoes is from tubers we managed to forget that potatoes have seeds. They are formed in those "green tomatoes", which on some varieties of the plant after flowering. If you have these and you are determined to try propagation by seed, can wait for their maturation and to procure their own seeds.
This fruit is harvested and hung in fabric pouches on the light in a warm room for a while. Ripened berries should be lighter and softer, then one can choose the seeds, washed and dried.If your seeds there is no problem, the seeds sold in stores. Where to buy better varieties and not hybrids. First longer retain their properties.Why growing from seed?
Seeds are much cheaper mini-tubers do not require special storage conditions and remain viable for 6-10 years. Potatoes, grown from seed completely free from viruses and diseases. Once suffer with seedlings and got quality planting material for the next five years. Yes, to suffer, perhaps, necessary. Receiving of mini-seed tubers is not a simple process. Read more about reproduction of potato seeds, read the article: dachnye-sovety.ru/kak-vyrastit-kartofel-iz-semyan/Method 2: cultivation of mini-tubers from large tuber
This and all subsequent methods are based on the use of meristem — a kind of point of growth of plants, groups of cells, which are able to quickly and intensively to share. Roughly speaking, the meristem reproduction is cloning, growing new plants from the cells of the previous one.
Welcome to the lab! To clone potatoes. Getting mini-tubers of the major is perhaps the easiest way to update seed potatoes. Our task is as follows: in the spring to select the best tubers of those varieties that require updates, and place them on all summer in the cellar. To monitor the humidity, from time to time to spray. By the autumn the tubers will germinate and get a root system, which will be small potatoes. This is the mini-tubers — clean planting material without any "ills". They need to collect, dry and store until next spring. Planted mini-tubers will yield a super-superelite. And so on... Method 3: the cultivation of mini-tubers from cuttings
Another way to obtain meristem tubers — cuttings. In the summer we celebrate on a bed of potato the best, most healthy Bush potatoes and always waiting for him to shed. Take cuttings early makes no sense. After flowering cut off a few sprigs of foliage and cut the stem a few cuttings 2-4 cm in length. Importantly, each stem was a leaf. The upper and lower parts of stems discarded and the cuttings from the middle four hours steeped in a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
On a cloudy day or in the evening planted the cuttings in a flower bed. The bed should be in shade, where not exposed to direct sun rays. Plant the cuttings so that the sheet is in a vertical position and were covered with earth by two-thirds (axillary Bud leaf should be at a depth of about one centimeter). The distance between the cuttings should be three inches, and between the rows twenty inches.
A bed with cuttings mulching and shed. After 2-3 weeks the leaves will wilt and turn yellow, and the sinus will start to form listclean mini potato grown due to the outflow of nutrients from leaves. A month after planting cuttings of the tubers are dug, the mini-tubers are disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, dried, zazeleneyut in the light, and then stored in cloth bags until next season.Method 4: growing seed potato from the tops of the tubers
Another simple way of updating the varieties of the potato — planting the tops of the tubers. To seed material is qualitative, is still needed in the fall to select the large, healthy tubers of each variety.
In the spring, all sampled tubers should be cut off the tops from the apical Bud (approximately one-third of the tuber) and place them in damp sawdust on the germination (the rest of the tuber can be planted like regular potatoes food). Every 2-3 days the sawdust slightly moistened with water.
After about 20 days the tops will sprout and the first roots. Now they can be planted in a flower bed to a depth of 4-5 inches. In the autumn of all the tubers grown from the tops, should be selected for seed. Method 5: growing seed potatoes from sprouts
This method is good because it allows you to grow to 45 bushes from the same tuber of the potato, which is very important for the rapid renovation.
The shoots of the potatoes are light and shadow. Light shoots — strong green — appear at germination of the tuber in the light. Shadow shoots — sickly pale — those that usually break off, pulling potatoes from the cellar. Those and other sprouts can be used for planting. Sprouts can be planted in pots (as seedlings) or directly into the ground.
Light twisting sprouts from the tuber along with the beginnings of the roots and put one buried two thirds. Shadow shoots are cut so that each part was a kidney, and bury into the soil, leaving the surface more than a centimeter.
The most important thing when growing potatoes from sprouts — nutrient soil. These plants have no mother tuber, from where one could obtain food, so they need to feed at least once a week. For this it is best to alternate the infusion of herbs infusion of ash and the infusion of vermicompost. In autumn all the potatoes from the best plants from germs, leave for seed.
Actually, that is exactly what you need to select all of the planting potatoes: to put labels at the best and most healthy bushes and take away seeds all potatoes (even the smallest) just from these bushes. With this selection the strain renovation of potatoes will require no more often than every 5-7 years, and with our traditional method is to dump all the potatoes in a pile, and choose seeds that smaller — update varieties need almost every two years. We wish you success and bigger yields! published
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! © Join us at Facebook , Vkontakte, Odnoklassniki