All known and loved hazel nuts, delicious and healthy, but they grow mainly in the forests. Now, filbert is a cultivated form of hazel, which can be grown in home gardens, with proper planting and care.Different varieties of hazelnut constitute forms and interspecific hybrids of the common hazel, large (Lombard), Pontic and heterophyllous.
Hazelnut is a deciduous shrub up to 3 m with large heart-shaped or oval dark green leaves. Very decorative large-leaved forms of hazelnuts, which are often used in landscaping. Male and female flowers are collected on the same plant, so the hazelnuts are called monoecious and dioecious. Male and female flowers are collected on the same plant, so the hazelnuts are called monoecious and dioecious.
Male flowers resemble catkins, and the female is similar to the rounded buds on the ends of the shoots. The shrub blooms very early, well before Bud break. In Ukraine, it usually occurs in March. Pollination occurs by the wind cross, but insects, when the weather is nice, like to visit the flowers. The fruits ripen in September, looks similar with nuts, like hazel forest, but larger, have thinner shells and high palatability.
The fruit is a one-seeded nut with a woody pericarp, surrounded by a wrapper (called a Cupule). Nuclei contain 50-60 % fat, 18 % protein, vitamins (A, B1, B2, C, D, E, etc.), macro - and micronutrients. Nuts are widely used in food, especially the confectionery industry. male flowers fundukleevsky flower fundukley hazelnut
The choice of location for planting
If your site is free, well-lit place, then safely planted the hazelnuts! It feels good in almost any soil, except dry, sandy, swampy and saline. Optimum are loose, fertile slightly acidic or neutral soil (pH 5.8 to 6.5). If your site is free, well-lighted place ― feel free to drop off the hazelnuts!
Ground water must not lie above 1.5 m. the planting site is best to choose so that it is not subjected to spring floods. To plant a shrub on flat areas and on slopes. Avoid planting on slopes of southern exposure, as they are more dry and moreover, the plants they bloom earlier, and there is a chance of severe frosts. Landing Pick-up time.
Landing can be carried out in autumn (September-October) or early spring, immediately after the thawing of the soil and till the end of April. Distance
. Hazelnuts planted for many years, the growth of the crown greatly expands, so the distance between plants 4-5 m between rows and 5-6 m. When planting with the aim of creating hedges the distance is reduced to 2-3 m. Many gardeners only complement your garden with hazelnuts, so plant your tree solitary. It should be borne in mind that to ensure good fruiting, in a plot it is best to plant at least 3 bushes, vzaimozavisimikh different varieties of hazelnuts.
As for planting a large garden for 10 rows of hazelnuts to improve cross-pollination, planted wild hazel. To ensure good fruiting, in a plot it is best to plant at least 3 bushes, vzaimozavisimikh different varieties of hazelnuts. The planting hole.
Pit size 70х70х70 cm to prepare in advance (with spring planting in autumn or during autumn for 1.5 months before planting). In the pit are making 10-15 kg of humus, 200 g of double superphosphate, 70 g of potassium sulfate. All carefully mix with the earth. Or instead of the above complex make 100 g of the organic mineral fertilizer of prolonged action WMD Universal.
In the center of the holes make planting mound. The roots of seedlings dipped in clay-manure mash and spread on the mound. After covered with earth and compacted. Seedling root collar should be at ground level or 2-3 cm above. Around the Bush make a hole and pour 20 litres of water. Planting mulched with sawdust or other materials (e.g. dry grass, peat). The aerial part of the seedling is cut at a height of 15-20 cm from the soil surface and tie the seedling to the base Cola. The first few days after planting, especially in spring, plants pritenyayut.
The ripening of the nuts depend on the type, usually late August – September. To determine the time of maturation can as wrapper: it yellows or turns brown, and the nut is easily removed. Collect fruits with the help of shaking them from the bushes, and those that are not strahovatsya, remove manually.
Then the nuts are laid out for drying in a thin layer in a well ventilated area or simply in the sun. When dry, they are cleaned from the skins and finally be dried. Nuts keep well for several years. To determine the time of maturation can as wrapper: it yellows or turns brown, and the nut is easily removed. not Mature arently arensberg harvest in August-September Care
Includes weeding, watering, mulching, fertilizing, treatment against pests and pruning. The soil in the tree trunks must be periodically loosened to a depth of 10-15 cm, destroying the weeds, and mulching with dry grass, peat or sawdust. Watering
. It is very important to conduct it during dry periods the rate of 10 l of water for each plant. It is especially necessary to ensure the hazelnut moisture in June and July, when the generative organs appear next year's harvest. Feeding
. Organic fertilizer (5 kg of humus or compost to each plant) made once in 2-3 years. Good results to increase yields give nitrogen fertilization with urea or ammonium nitrate (100 g / Bush) in the spring and early summer. Complex fertilizers with a full range of macro - and micronutrients contribute 2 times a season. In order to avoid unnecessary trouble with fertilizer once a season to make organic fertilizer WMDs Universal. Plants need to fertilize after a rain or heavy watering. All the worries associated with nutrients aimed at improving fruiting. Trim
. Do the pruning in late autumn. Great importance is formative pruning of Bush, through which the shoots provide sufficient illumination required for ripening nuts. Such a forming of the Bush need to be completed by early fruiting hazelnut, which usually begins from 4 years of age.
For proper formation of the Bush in the middle cut out superfluous shoots, and side bent to the side and fixed in this position using wire. As a result, the hive is well ventilated and illuminated. Usually form no more than 8-10 trunks, which will serve as the basis of the Bush.
Usually form no more than 8-10 trunks, which will serve as the basis of the Bush. Further pruning is to remove unnecessary root seedlings, thinning of Bush, removal of weak, broken shoots. The need for such trimming occurs in the 5-6 year life of the plant. At the age of 15-20 years will need rejuvenating pruning, as the result of aging reduces the yield of the plant. Carry out such pruning by removing 2-3 years: 2-3 old trunk, cutting them as close to the ground. Growing young shoots are cut for further branching. Pests and diseases
. The main pest of hazelnut is the nut weevil (podojil). In the cultivation of hazelnut is often a problem of premature nut shedding and contamination of nuts with weevil larvae ("worms in"). All results harmful life nut weevil. The adult insect is a small beetle with the characteristic proboscis, the female gnaws them young fruits at the time of nomination of the nut from the involucre and lays their eggs. Emerging from the eggs the larvae feed inside the nut, causing great harm. Control measures
. The most effective measure against weevil is a 2-fold treatment of plants preparations of systemic action, such as Actar, Angio, Calypso. The treatment is carried out with the appearance of beetles in the spring (usually in early may) and at the moment of laying eggs by females (usually this happens in mid-June at the time of nomination of the nut from the involucre). Walnut dolgonosikami damaged by weevil
. Another pest, is noted for hazelnut, hazelnut moustache. Barbel larvae feed inside the shoots, which leads to their shrinkage. These shoots are encouraged to cut and burn.
. Among the diseases sometimes there is powdery mildew. In severe cases, make treatment fungicides, such as Topaz, Quadris, flint. To prevent problems with pests and diseases, be sure to use preventive measures to collect and destroy the infested nuts, after leaf clean up and destroy fallen leaves in autumn dig around tree trunks circles.
The climatic conditions of Ukraine allow to grow hazelnuts. Beautiful shrub can be used not only practical but also decorative purposes, for example, in mixed borders, or for creating hedges. To have a small cottage on the hazel has long ceased to be exotic and inaccessible. Only need to select several suitable varieties, how to plant and expect a delicious fruit. Good luck! published
Author: Ivan Yarovoy
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©
Join us in Facebook , Vkontakte, Odnoklassniki