The sacred meaning of tradition in the construction of a Russian izba

The construction of the building — the act of creation, of creation. And carpenters in Russia was likened to the Creator, as being involved in the sphere of the sacred and endowed with supernatural powers and special knowledge about the outside world.

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To legitimize a new model of the world, the world converted the accomplished creation, the construction was accompanied by certain ordinances…



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Construction began with defining the ritual center. This point was recognized by the middle of next home or red (front St.) corner. Here was planted or stuck sapling (birch, Rowan, oak, cedar, tree icon) or made by the carpenters of the cross, which stood until the end of construction.

Tree or cross like world tree, symbolizing the world order, cosmos. So established relationship of similarity between the structure of the future structure and structure of the cosmos, and the very act of construction was mythologicals.


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In the center, marked world tree, laid the so-called building sacrifice. Like the world in the mythological representation were "deployed" from the victim's body, the house also "deduced" from the victim.

In the early stages of the history of the Slavs was not excluded human sacrifice at the Foundation of buildings, then the ritual equivalent of human sacrifice was livestock(most commonly horse) and small animals (rooster, chicken).

Excerpt from Christian Nomocanon reads: "in the construction of houses tend to put the human body as a Foundation. Lay person in the Foundation — punishment — 12 years of Church penance and 300 bows. Put in the Foundation of the boar, or bull, or goat". Later construction the victim was bloodless. Stable set of the three sacrificial symbols: wool, grain, money, which is correlated with ideas of wealth, fertility, prosperity, and a personification of three kingdoms: animal, plant, and human.


The sacrifice ceremony was combined with the laying of the first wreath. This operation was given special attention, because the first row is a sample and the rest of the crowns that make up the frame.

With the laying of the first wreath is implemented in the spatial scheme of the home, and now the whole space is divided into domestic and feral, domestic and foreign.

Usually on this day the carpenters put only one crown, followed by "the accountant" ("obladanoe", "backfilling") a feast, during which the master says: "Masters of good health, and home share to stand until they rot." If the carpenters I wish the owners future home of evil, and in this case, the laying of the first wreath — best moment: hitting a cross-shaped axe on the log and keeping in mind the intended spell, the wizard says, "GAK! Nihal bodice!"— and that he conceived, it will come true.


The Central point of construction – the laying of the beams (beams constituting the ground to ceiling) – are accompanied by ritual actions, the purpose of which was to provide warmth and prosperity in the house.

One of the carpenters avoided the top log ("skull crown"), scattered on the sides of the cereal grain and hops. The owners are all the time praying to God.

The wizard-priest stepped on the joist where the bark was tied with a sheepskin coat, in the pockets of her put bread, salt, piece of meat, a head of cabbage and a bottle of green wine. Bark was pererubano axe, picked up the coat at the bottom, the pocket contents were eaten and drunk. Was able to lift the joist with attached to it a cake or a loaf of bread.After the installation of beams and "matecznego" treats rode horses with songs to the whole village saw what matrix put. And only a day continued to finish the house.


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Close attention was paid to the process of manufacturing of door and window openings in order to regulate, to protect the connection of the inner world (home). When he pushed the door frame, saying, "Door, door! Be you locked evil duhovi and borovi," and did axe the sign of the cross. The same happened when I installed the lintels and sills for Windows, and the same applied to the Windows to not let in the house of thieves and evil spirits.


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The sky – roof of the earth. Hence the order of peace, harmony, because everything has an upper limit, finished, of course. The house, like painting the world becomes "his", residential and secure, only being covered.

With the laying of the roof is connected last, and the most lavish entertainment of carpenters, which was called "lock" of the roof.

In the North staged "salamati" — a formal family dinner for carpenters and relatives. The main dishes were Salamat several varieties — thick zatirukha of flour (buckwheat, barley, oats), mixed with cream and seasoned with melted butter and a mess of fried in vegetable oil cereals.


Seem strange rites, the final construction of the house. Within a certain period of time (7 days, year, etc.) the building was to remain unfinished with a view to avoid the death of any of the family members. For example, could leave nepobedimym a piece of the wall above the icons, or year did a roof over a porch to "all sorts of trouble flew in the hole". So the incompleteness, the incompleteness associated with the ideas of maintaining the existing order, of eternity, of immortality, the continuation of life.published  



P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©

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