To learn how to work in the Soviet Union secret service, known quite a lot, but not all. However, it is known that in the Soviet Union there was a system of wiretapping. This system was expanded enough, you will hear many, writes Cnews. But how it was effective?
Answers are given to the question in a recent US book Red Web. Certainly worth a certain degree of caution to treat this kind of literature, but the book is not prepared amateurs and Russian journalists familiar with the subject.
Who and How to listen? h3>
Listening to the 12 Division engaged in the KGB. In the capital, Moscow, there were more than 160 points of listening. To place such items in the PBX (for equipment and people stood up entire rooms), some KGB building in a central point of listening, which is located on the Warsaw highway.
Different listening specialized on different objects. Some "listen" to foreign embassies, some ordinary citizens, were still items not listen to officials of the highest rank. It was forbidden to listen to only the top leadership of the Communist Party of the country. The initiator of such a system input to the work of Yuri Andropov became.
With automation while things were not too good, so the points worked operators - mostly women. They wiretapped telephone conversations, and recorded some on film, some conversations and shorthand. Each operator, as stated in the book, was to recognize at least 50 different voices.
For his work, operators received about 300 Soviet rubles - if anyone remembers, it was a very large sum, since the average wage is 150-180 rubles.
The operator to control the representatives of the KGB, is basically the same woman. Their duty was to enforce the rules.
How it was effective? h3>
It is inefficient because the system did not really have a common center. The problem, moreover, were heterogeneous PBX, some of which were created in the 30's of the 20th century. As a result, simultaneously enjoy no more than 300 calls. In the transcript of the required hours of negotiations about 7 hours.
What others? h3>
The GDR has developed and implemented a similar system. Only it was much more sophisticated. The work of this system began in the mid-50s of the last century, and in the 80s it significantly upgraded. It was called a modernized variation of the system Ceko-2.
It was centralized, and about 70% of all listening talks held by the central station. At the same time intelligence is able to listen to more than 400 thousand calls. The total number of telephones in the GDR was then 8 million. In general, at the same time talks were just a few hundred thousand people, so the system can listen to almost everything.
International negotiations h3>
During the 1980 Olympic Games was introduced to the work of an international telephone exchange M-9, 1, 6000 the international automatic telephone lines. KGB was initially against this station, but the engineers were able to find a solution that allowed counterintelligence listen to channels, and the agency has calmed down.
Albeit briefly - in '81, it was decided to reduce the number of international telephone lines 1, 6000 to 100.
The ban on the introduction of the automatic international telephone lines was withdrawn only after the collapse of the USSR.
What now? h3>
Now in Russia operates a "system of technical means to provide the functions of search operations» ( SORM ). Thus "hardware" work not only to listen to phone calls, but also to analyze the local traffic providers. Until 2013 there was no official hardware requirements for SORM against ISPs. Earlier, several years ago, we were introduced hardware requirements for operators against SORM telephone and radio communications. In 2013 formulated hardware requirements for Internet providers. These requirements are assembled in part III of the Order.
This document specifies the requirements for hardware and software requirements that are needed for SORM (for providers is SORM-2). Among other things, this project provides a list of Internet services, which are subject to control by the SORM. Some of these services include the famous mail.ru; yandex.ru; rambler.ru; gmail.com; yahoo.com. apport.ru; rupochta.ru hotbox.ru, ICQ and some other services.
"Failure to do so may result in the imposition of an administrative penalty operator for failure to license conditions pursuant to Art. 14.1. Administrative Code, as one of the license conditions of the majority of licenses is due to the implementation of requirements for networks and communications during search operations. Failure to comply with these requirements could also lead to a decision by the licensing authority - Roscomnadzor - the suspension of the license issued to the operator, as well as the revocation of the license, "according to the same order.
This year, put SORM obliged and postal services of the Russian Federation. Appropriate instructions contained in the Order of the Ministry of Communications «On approval of requirements for automated mail sorting equipment, providing fulfilling of set actions during operational investigation activities. " Mounting a suitable system should be carried out by companies in the course of the year from the entry into force of the order. "Commissioning of the hardware on the network service provider shall be in accordance with the developed body of the Federal Security Service in conjunction with the service provider implementation plans for the hardware, which states, in particular, the duration of their commissioning. The plan is developed in a period of three months from the filing date of the application service provider in the office of the Federal Security Service, "commented the installation of the press service of FSUE" Mail of Russia ».
The funds for the installation of SORM and providers, and mail services should look for yourself.