Before eventually even eminent minds bessilnyVremya - a very strange thing. Sometimes it is fast and sometimes runs incredibly slowly. To date, there are a lot of theories designed to explain what such a time, and why it is so mysterious. And some of these theories - is very unusual.
1. The theory of the time of St. AvgustinaU St. Augustine, the Christian philosopher, had the peculiar idea of time. Above all, he believed that the time - not forever. Time, he says, was created by God, moreover, it is impossible to create something infinite.
When something remains in the past, , he no longer has any properties of being, because it no longer exists h4> And yet Augustine believed that the time actually it exists only in our minds and just depends on how we interpret it. We can say that something takes a long time or not too long, but Augustine argued that there is no real way to objectively evaluate it.
When something remains in the past, he no longer has any properties of being, because now it does not exist. And when we say that something "took too long" - it is because we remember this "something" in this way.
And as we measure time based only on how to remember him, therefore, it should exist only in our minds. As for the future, it does not exist yet, so it is impossible to measure. There is only the present, so the only logical conclusion is that the concept of time resides solely in our heads.
2. The topology looks vremeniKak time? If you try to imagine it, you imagine it in a straight line that never ends? And can you think about something like a watch, the arrows that describe the round and round every day and every year?
Obviously, the correct answer, but there are some intriguing ideas associated with it.
Aristotle believed that the time can not exist in a line. At least, he has no beginning and no end, despite the fact that there should be a time when it all began. And if you imagine that moment when it all started, you have to mark a point to this point. And if the world will cease to exist - that will be one more point after that point.
And yet it is unclear how much can be time lines. Could it be only one time line, the forward direction, or a lot of these lines, they are parallel to each other, or vice versa - overlap? It can be a time line is divided into a plurality of segments? Could it be that the moments in the stream of time exist completely independently of each other? Regarding all this, there are lots of opinions. And no single answer.
3. plausible nastoyascheeIdeya "plausible real" tries to answer the question of how long this moment lasts. The usual response associated with this, it sounds like "now", but it is not too informative.
In fact, this should not be at the duration , because if it is, a part of this right is in the past, and some in the future, and as a result once there is a contradiction strong >. h4> For example, when in the course of the conversation we get to the middle of a sentence, does it mean that we have completed the beginning of a sentence, and it was in the past? And the conversation - it is in the present tense? Or only in this part of the conversation, and part of it - in the past?
ER Clay and William James expressed the idea of "plausible present" - a period of time that we perceive as real. According to Clay and James, this moment only lasts a few seconds and can not last longer than a minute, and this - the amount of time that we consciously aware
But even within this framework there is something to argue.
Theoretically, all of the above may be due to short-term human memory - the memory of the better, the longer the present. Still there is the view that all this is only a matter of an instant of perception. And as soon as you rely on your short-term memory - this moment can not be part of this. That is a problem, "this plausible," and something like "extended present", which occurs immediately after the "specious present" disappeared.
In fact, this should not be at length, because if it is - part of this right is in the past and of the future, and there is a contradiction. A "plausible now" tries to explain the present as a prolonged period of time, and it is debatable.
4. Low people perceive the "now" before vysokihEto sounds strange, but it makes sense. It was developed by neuroscientist David Iglmen, he called her "time reference».
The brain - a kind of sensory structures with a clear organization. This structure builds things for us in the ascending order of their meaning h4> All of this is based on the idea that we perceive the world, getting some information packages that are going to our senses and then processed by the brain. Information from various parts of the body gets to the brain for different times. Let's say you go on the go write someone an SMS, and suddenly hits his head on a telegraph pole. At the same time you injure on the same post more and big toe. In theory, information on head injury should go into your brain faster than information about the trauma of the big toe. However, you'll think that all this you feel the same time.
And all because the brain - a kind of sensory structures with a clear organization. This structure builds things for us in the ascending order of their meaning.
The above mentioned delay in the processing of information plays into the hands of low people. Because the little man feels more accurate version of the time, as in his case the data takes less time to get to the brain.
5. Time slows down, and we can videtOdna of the oldest problems in physics related to the existence of dark energy. We can see the effects of this energy, but have no idea what it is.
The team of professors from Spain considers that all efforts to find a dark energy turned out to be in vain, simply because it does not exist. They believe that all the effects of dark energy can be explained by an alternative idea, that in fact we see the slowing of time before it is possible stop.
Take astronomical phenomenon known as "red shift." When we see the stars, glowing red light, we know that they are accelerated. A group of Spanish professors explains the phenomenon of the acceleration of the universe not as a result of the presence of dark energy in it, as well as an illusion created by the slowing of time.
In light enough time to reach us. And when it finally happens, time slows down, creating the illusion that everything around is accelerating. Time stops very, incredibly slow, but when you consider the vastness of outer space and its breathtaking distances, it turns out that we can see how slowing down time, just looking at the stars.
6. Time suschestvuetTakzhe not have an opinion, that time does not exist. It is stated at the beginning of the last century philosopher McTaggart (JME McTaggart). According to McTaggart, when considering the time permitted two approaches.
The first approach is called A Theory
It says that the time has a certain order and continuously flows that things there are organized the way we see them. And events are moving from past to present, and then in the future.
In-Theory , in contrast, argues that the adoption of timing and time itself - this is an illusion, and there is no way that allows to make all the events happening in the world in a strictly defined order.
This version of "time" is supported only by our memories and in our memories, as a rule, fixed individual events, and we will remember them as separate "pockets of time", and not as a continuous stream.
In view of this theory can be proved that time does not exist, since to time, there is required a continuous change of events and circumstances of the world
However, if the A-theory is correct, then the assertion that there is no time looks too hasty. For example, take a day when you turned 21. On the one hand, that day was once in the future. On the other hand, the same day when something would be in the past. But one and the same time can not be both in the past and in the present and in the future. That is why McTaggart says that A Theory - contradictory, and therefore can not be as time itself.
7. The theory of four dimensions and four dimensions VselennoyTeoriya block and the block of the universe is connected with the notion of time as a real dimension. There is a version that objects exist in four dimensions, rather than three. Fourth Dimension - this time.
And there, too, objects can be viewed in terms of three dimensions, ie three dimensions. The theory of the block of the universe is the whole universe as a unit of measurement separated by "layers" of time.
This block has a length, width and height, and only this block, for each event, the layers have certain time. Everyone - a four-dimensional object that exists in the different layers of time. There is a layer of time infancy, there is a layer for childhood to adolescence, and so on.
Thus, the sacrificial layer is no past, present or future. However, every point inside the universe can be either the past or the present, or the future in relation to other points of time in this block.
8. The effect of slowing vremeniInogda we hear stories of people caught in life-threatening or scary situation. And these people swear that the time in these situations is slowing. This slowdown is often felt during the events, paranormal, or events that occurred suddenly. This is a common phenomenon, and it has become the subject of much debate about what we are actually.
The researchers decided to find out what would happen if the time is really slow. For example, we could have a better look at a lot of things, because our brains have a bad habit to mix similar incentives in one common event, if the interval between stimuli less than 80 milliseconds.
One experiment was conducted.
Subjects were offered to look at the figures, which flickered and changed constantly. So the scientists wanted to determine the point at which the brain ceases to pay attention to the time and the person begins to distinguish between different series of numbers.
All this suggests that this is not some point of time slows down for us, and slows down our memory of this moment h4> First experiment conducted in normal conditions, then decided to repeat in extreme conditions: the participants were asked to look at a series of blinking digits, falling from a height of 46 m tower.
They were then asked to see how other people are falling with the same tower and assess what long these falls were compared to their fall.
Own subjects seemed to fall by 36% longer. Furthermore, in an emergency people are better identified by the flashing number. All this suggests that this is not some point of time slows down for us, and slows down our memory of this moment.
Although the practical use of the effect of time dilation may be surprising, we should not forget that the same effect could make the terrible events in our memories last forever.
9. Chronos, Chronos and VremyaEschё Greek philosophers attempt to explain the time, the time it was a mythological explanation.
Before the beginning of time the gods were only initial - Khronos and Ananke. Chronos was the god of time, and was partly human, part lion and part bull.
Ananke was the serpent, obvivshimsya eggs around the world and a symbol of eternity. More Chronos in Greco-Roman mythology often depicted standing in the zodiacal circle, where he portrayed a man, with this man can be both young and old.
Chronos was the father of the Titans, and it is often confused with the Kronos, who was also associated with time. It Cronus overthrew the throne, and then castrated his father, and was later killed by his own son, Zeus.
Chronos was the one who was responsible for the change of seasons, and for a period of time in general. But for things that happen to men and women during this time, is not responsible Chronos, and some other.
The life cycle of a person, his birth, maturation, aging and death, was the area of responsibility of those who were called goddesses of fate - Moira. Clotho spun the thread of life, Lachesis determined human destiny and, finally, Atropos cut the thread, and a man's life ends here.
10. We did not measure vremyaKogda it comes to the physics of space, of time, of the size and everything that goes with them to complete, while, perhaps, the most difficult to explain.
We are, in fact, not too good measure time.
On the one hand, there is a sidereal time, ie the time measured by the position of the stars and the Earth's rotation. Obviously, this time though varied, but very slightly.
However, in the 20th century, astronomers found that the planet's rotation is slowing down, was created because another scale - ephemeris time.
Still later came the so-called topocentric time (TDT) is considered the most accurate because it was based International Atomic Time (IAT). In 1991, Atomic Time was renamed Terrestrial Time (TT). And if tracking time zones today someone may seem complicated, it should not be forgotten that even today the position of the stars and other celestial bodies used in conjunction with earth time, because that is how it achieved maximum accuracy.
All it says only one thing: we still have no idea what to do with time, despite the fact that we live through it every day.