What are the best engines - German, Japanese, or maybe the US? We ranked the most successful engines and uncover the secrets of their reliability and "indestructibility».
There is a legend of car owners. On the engine that-don't-break. And not just one, but many. Legends of these grows with time amazing biographies generate an ongoing debate on the theme "German anti-Japanese anti-American."
A lot of witnesses willing to testify reliability of a motor with a run in half-million miles, not in the least embarrassed by the fact that its origin is hidden in the dark ages, and there he witnessed the strength of a few years. But legends do not lie: these engines exist. We have combined them into a list, in the drafting of which provide all possible assistance to mechanics with a solid work experience.
The list was rather big - over the past few decades, automakers have managed to create enough masterpieces engine. And specify that in our review will not all motors, and only ten, the most famous and mass. Those that are installed on the sign at the time the model to win races. A kind of celebrity in the world of cars.
Diesel power plants are traditionally listed as the most reliable. Largely due to the fact that ten years ago it was difficult to imagine a car with a sporty character and diesel unit, and now diesels take those who need to travel a lot, which means that the motor is running in the best conditions. In addition, the old generation engines have a relatively simple construction with a good margin of safety.
The family of diesel engines OM602, five-cylinder, two valves per cylinder and mechanical fuel pump Bosch deservedly holds the palm Endurance, resistance to the difficulties of life and the number of the remaining cars on the move with them. These diesel engines produced from 1985 to 2002 - nearly twenty years.
Not the most powerful, from 90 to 130 hp, they are famous for is reliability and efficiency. This family was quite worthy ancestors, generation OM617, and quite worthy heirs - OM612 and OM647.
Meet such motors can be in the body for Mercedes W124, W201 (MB190), off-road G-class, on frugonah T1 and Sprinter and even in the later W210. Runs many instances exceed half a million kilometers, and a record - and at two. And if the time to take care of breaking down the fuel equipment and the implement, the design does not let you down.
Bavarian Motors deserved no less than Stuttgart. These in-line six-cylinder diesel engines, in addition to the impressive reliability differed also very lively disposition, many stoked change the image of the diesel engine. Perceive the BMW 330D in the back of E46 as a slow machine for seniors and taxi drivers can not be, it drayvers car, but with a powerful and high-torque diesel engine.
The power of these motors in different variants ranged from 201 hp up to 286 hp, and they were released from 1998 to 2008 and stood on most models Bavarian decades. All of them, from the third to the seventh series, have options with M57. They occur on the Range Rover - the engine of the legendary "Mumusika" was precisely in this series.
By the way, our hero was no less legendary ancestor, albeit not as common. M51 family of engines were produced from 1991 to 2000. Minor problems in engines enough, but the mechanics are unanimous: serious damage is rare and it is well "running" at least until the runs in the 350-500 thousand.
Petrol row "Quartet»
Gasoline engines in Russia is loved more than diesel. Yet gasoline does not freeze in the winter, and they are arranged easier. And if diesels in the list of finalists were only relatively large, among gasoline "Legend" will motors smaller, conventional in-line "quartet".
Honor to open a list of the motor falls Toyta 3S-FE - Representative deserved Series S, which considered it one of the most reliable and unpretentious units. The two-liter volume, four cylinders and sixteen valves - typical values for mass motors 90. Camshaft drive belt, a simple distributed injection. Engine produced from 1986 to 2000.
Power ranged from 128 to 140 hp More powerful version of this engine, 3S-GE and turbocharged 3S-GTE, inherited the successful design and a good resource. 3S-FE engine was mounted on a number of toyotovskih models: Toyota Camry (1987-1991), Toyota Celica T200, Toyota Carina (1987-1998), Toyota Corona T170 / T190, Toyota Avensis (1997-2000), Toyota RAV4 (1994- 2000), Toyota Picnic (1996-2002), Toyota MR2, and the turbocharged 3S-GTE also on Toyota Caldina, Toyota Altezza.
Mechanics celebrate the amazing ability of the engine to carry heavy loads and poor service, ease of maintenance and overall reasonableness of the design. With good service engines such transfer any mileage 500,000 miles without a major overhaul, and with a good supply for the future. And the owners are able not to bother with small problems.
Another epic Japanese family-liter gasoline engines. Its first version appeared in 1982, and licensed copies and model-heirs produced so far. Initially, the engine was produced with one camshaft (SOHC) and three valves per cylinder, but in 1987 there was also a DOHC version with two camshafts. The latest varieties of the unit installed on Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution IX until 2006. Motors family found a place under the hood, not only for Mitsubishi, but also Huyndai, Kia, as well as the Chinese brand Brilliance.
Over the years, the production of the engine repeatedly modernized, the latest version of its system has variable valve timing and more complex power system and pressurization. All this is not the best effect on reliability, but maintainability and ease of layout remained. "Millionaire" considered only naturally aspirated version of the engine, although the turbo can also have a very large by the standards of competition, resource.
Another Japanese family of engines, which includes more than a dozen varieties of capacity from 1.2 to 1.7 liters, rightfully earned the status of virtually "neubivaemy." They were produced from 1984 to 2005. Considered the most reliable options D15 and D16, but combines them all one - the will to live and a high tachometer readings.
Power comes to 131 hp, and operating speed - up to 7000. Puts such motors on Honda Civic, HR-V, Stream, Accord and Acura Integra. When fighting spirit and a small working volume Overhaul at 350-500 thousand can be considered outstanding and well thought-out design gives a chance for a second life and another 350 thousand run.
List of excellent and simple "fours" closes the representative of the European School engine - x20se family of engines Opel 20ne. This member of the family of motors GM Family II famously often experienced machine, which was installed.
Simple design - 8 valves, camshaft belt drive - and simple injection system is the secret to longevity. As the most successful examples of Japanese schools, it has a capacity of two liters and the same ratio of bore and stroke that 3S-FE - 86 x 86mm.
Power of different options ranging from 114 to 130 hp Produced engines from 1987 to 1999 and were installed on models such as the Kadett, Astra, Vectra, Omega, Frontera, Calibra, as well as Australian and American Holden Buick and Oldsmobile. In Brazil, even produced a turbocharged version of the engine - Lt3 capacity of 165 hp
Shestnadtsatiklapanny version of the famous C20XE, until last year used in cars Lada and Chevrolet's racing championship WTCC (about the success of AvtoVAZ factory team we recently wrote), and its turbocharged version, C20LET, already noted in the rally and is considered one of the most simple and successful.
Simple version of the engine can change not only half run without a major overhaul, but that respects try to go in a million. Shestnadtsatiklapannye species, X20XEV and C20XE, like "health" do not possess, but also may long to please the owner, and design them as simple and logical.
V8 engines for passenger cars are usually extra long resource no different - lightweight design and layout complexity of such a large engine is not added to the reliability of the unit as a whole. By American V8 is not quite true, but they are - a separate conversation.
Indeed robust V-shaped engines, do not annoy owners large and small breakdowns that can easily cross the threshold of half a million kilometers, can be counted on the fingers.
And again in the list of reliable engines - Bavarian products. The first in many years, the company has made V8 passenger to fame: two-row chain nikasilovoe cylinder covers and a good margin of safety. A relatively small degree of boost and good study design allowed to create a truly resource engine.
The use of nickel-silicon coating (Nikasil) makes this engine cylinders virtually wear-free. For half a million kilometers in engine often do not even need to change the piston rings. But so strong nikasilovoe coating afraid of sulfur in the fuel, and after numerous cases of damage to engines in the United States from its use was abandoned in favor of technology "Alusil» (Alusil), with more "soft" coating. Despite such as high hardness, it eventually crumble under the influence of shock loads and other factors. These motors were installed on the BMW 5 and 7 series in 1992-1998.
The simplicity of design, high power, good margin of safety allows them to take more than half a million kilometers. Unless of course, you do not refuel sour Canadian gasoline engines ... Later, M62, have become much more complex and, as a consequence, much less reliable. They can compete for Overhaul, but not on the number of breakdowns. In earlier versions of the M62 is also used nikasilovoe Floor, later replaced by Alusil.
Petrol row "Six»
Strange but true: in-line six-cylinder engine among millionaire very much. Relatively simple construction, balance (and hence, the absence of vibration) and the power of bearing fruit in the form of reliability and service life.
Toyota 1JZ-GE and 2JZ-GE
These engines of 2.5 liters and 3 earned the right to be called legendary. An excellent resource with a very lively character - that is the formula for success. They were issued in 1990 and 2007 in different versions. There have been turbocharged variants - 1JZ-GTE and 2JZ-GTE.
In Russia, they are best known in the Far East due to the prevalence of RHD "Japanese women." Among other 1JZ and 2JZ were placed on Toyota Mark II, Soarer, Supra, Crown, Chaser, as well as American Lexus Is 300, GS300, which we have far less common.
Atmospheric variants of these engines are able to drive a million miles before major repairs, aided by a simple and very-designed design and good quality.
Without the "sixes» BMW hits "most reliable" do not be. History deserved motor M30 began in 1968. In various versions he produced until 1994!
Working volume ranged from 2.5 to 3.4 liters, and power - from 150 to 220 hp The design of the most simple: cast iron block, timing chain, 12-valve aluminum cylinder head. However, the M88 was sporting options and a 24-valve "head".
As with any reliable engine in M30 has a turbocharged version. Turbocharging always accelerates wear on the engine, and if the design has a margin of safety, the designers often seek to exhaust it to the limit. Motor M102B34 actually represented the M30 with a turbine capacity 252 hp
M30 series engines were put on the car fifth, sixth and seventh series of generations. How can undergo such motors, not known for certain, but half run to them - quite ordinary result. And given the complex handling of powerful rear-wheel drive cars of the time, most of the power units went to landfill is not due to wear.
M50 series engines made worthy of the traditions. Engine capacity ranged from 2 to 2.5 liters, power - from 150 to 192 hp Cylinder Block - still cast iron, but the head of the block - with only four valves per cylinder. In the later series appeared tricky timing system VANOS (she should devote a separate publication).
These engines are able to repeat the feat of the ancestors and pass half a million without major interventions. The new generation, M52, brought scandal nikasilom and more complex structure, and although reputation is very reliable engines remained, the number of failures is much higher and less resource.
A few words about the operation
Of course, running the motor is heavily dependent on how it operates. For instance, when working in a taxi motors wound huge runs in a very short period of time, and the argument "but he reeled 200,000 over three years without any problems" little to do with the real resource of the motor, because in this mode, the number of breakdowns and wear is minimal.
But the operation in countries with harsh climates and cold start, long standing in traffic jams, frequent movement "sneakers on the floor", on the contrary, dramatically reduces resource. For this reason, among the finalists do not have new engines that are able to collect half a million run for several years - it's just very little to say about their reliability, because the mode of operation they will be the most gentle.
In the next article we will talk about the back of the engine - the least successful in terms of design and reliability of motors.
© Boris Ignashin