At an abandoned mine lost their lives the majority of the underground Komsomol organization "Young Guard", fought in 1942 against the Nazis in a small Ukrainian town of Krasnodon. It was the first youth underground organization, which managed to collect quite detailed information. Molodogvardeytsev then called heroes (they were the heroes) who gave their lives for their country. A little more than twenty years ago about the "Young Guard" knew everything.
The novel by Alexander Fadeyev studied in schools; on viewing the film by Sergei Gerasimov people could not hold back tears; Young Guard boats were called names, streets, hundreds of schools and pioneer detachments. What were they, these young men and women who called themselves Young Guards?
In Krasnodonskoye Komsomol youth underground included seventy-one people: forty-seven twenty-four boys and a girl. The youngest was fourteen and fifty-five of them never turned nineteen. The most common, is no different from the same young men and women of our country, the guys were friends and quarreling, studied and fell in love, ran to the dance and chased pigeons. They were engaged in school clubs, sports clubs, playing stringed instruments, wrote poetry, painted many well.
We studied in different ways - someone was an excellent student, and someone with difficulty prevailed granite science. Much has been and brats. I dream of the future adult life. They wanted to become pilots, engineers, lawyers, someone was going to go to drama school, and someone - in the Pedagogical Institute.
"Young Guard" was a multi-national as the population of the southern regions of the USSR. Russian, Ukrainians (among them were the Cossacks), Armenians, Belarusians, Jews, Azerbaijani and Moldavian, ready at any moment to come to the aid of each other, fought with the Nazis.
The Germans occupied Krasnodon 20 July 1942. And almost immediately in the city were first leaflets blazed a new room, ready for the German barracks. It began operating Sergei Tyulenin. One.
August 12, 1942 he was seventeen. Flyers, Sergei wrote on pieces of old newspapers and the police often find them in their pockets. He began to collect weapons, not even doubting that it is sure to come in handy. He first drew a group of guys who are ready to fight. It initially consisted of eight people. However, by the beginning of September in Krasnodon operated for several groups not related to one another - they had only 25 people.
Happy Birthday underground Komsomol organization "Young Guard" was September 30: then adopted a plan of creation of force, outlined specific actions of underground work, set up headquarters. It includes Zemnukhov Ivan - chief of staff, Vasily Levashov - the commander of the central group, Georgy and Sergei Arutyunyants Tyulenin - members of staff.
Commissioner Victor Tretyakevich elected. Guys unanimously supported the proposal Tyulenin called group "Young Guard". And in early October all the disparate underground groups were merged into one organization. Later they went to the headquarters of Uliana Gromova, Lyubov Shevtsova Oleg Mishka and Ivan Turkenich.
Now one can often hear that the Young did not do anything special. Well pasted leaflets, collect weapons, burned and infected grain intended occupants. Well hung several flags on the day of the 25th anniversary of the October Revolution, burned labor exchanges, rescued several dozen prisoners of war. Other underground organizations existed longer and done more!
And understand whether these pseudo-criticism that everything literally everything these boys and girls made between life and death. Is it easy to walk down the street, when almost every house and the fence posted warning that failure in delivery of weapons - shooting. And at the bottom of the bag, under the potatoes are two grenades, and we have an independent view to go past a few dozen police officers, and anyone can stop ... By the beginning of December, the Young stock for 15 machines, 80 rifles, 300 grenades, 15 thousand rounds of ammunition, 10 pistols, 65 kilograms of explosives and several hundred meters of safety fuse.
Is not it scary at night to sneak past the German patrol, knowing that for the appearance on the streets after six in the evening threatened to shoot? But most of the cases it was done at night. At night burned a German Labour Exchange - and two and a half thousand Krasnodontsev were spared from the German penal servitude. At night, November 7 the Young hung red flags - and the next morning, when he saw them, people have experienced great joy: "About us remember we are not forgotten by our". At night, freed prisoners, cut the telephone wires, attacked the German car, beat back the Nazis herd of 500 head of cattle and driven away to nearby hamlets and villages.
Even the leaflets pasted mainly at night, although there were times when this was done and had afternoon. Please leaflets written by hand, then they were printed in the same organized by the printing press. Total Molodaya released about 30 individual leaflets with a circulation of nearly five thousand copies - one Krasnodontsev learned fresh reports Sovinformburo.
In December, the headquarters were first differences became later the basis of the legend that still lives, and according to which the Commissioner, "Young Guard" says Oleg Mishka.
What happened? Mishka began to insist that all of the underground allocated detachment of 15-20 people capable of acting separately from the main group. That it something Commissioner and had become Mishka. The boys did not support this proposal. Yet Oleg after a reception in the Komsomol youth group took Vanya Zemnukhova time Komsomol tickets, but did not give them, as always, Victor Tretyakevich and gave the newly adopted itself by signing: "The Commissioner of the partisan detachment" Hammer "Kashuk." < br />
January 1, 1943 arrested three of the Young Eugene Moshkov, Victor and Ivan Tretyakevich Zemnukhov - the Nazis were at the heart of the organization. On the same day, immediately gathered the remaining members of staff and decided: all the Young immediately leave the city, and the head does not have to spend the night at home that night. The solution of Staff notified all connected via underground. One of them took place in the village group Pervomaika - Gennady Pocheptsov learned about the arrests, a coward and wrote a statement to the police about the existence of an underground organization.
The movement came all the punitive apparatus. Mass arrests. But why do not the majority of the Young Staff complied with the order? After all, this is the first disobedience, and thus a violation of oath, almost all of them worth living! Probably say the lack of life experience.
At first, the guys did not realize that disaster struck and the leading trio will not get out of jail. Many could not decide for himself whether to leave the city, to help you arrested or voluntarily share their fate. They did not realize that the staff has considered all the options and took action only right. But he was a majority and not fulfilled. Almost all were afraid for their parents.
Only twelve Young Guard was able to hide in those days. But later the two of them - Sergei and Oleg Tyulenin Koshevogo - still arrested. Four city police cameras were packed to capacity. All children terribly tortured. Cabinet Chief of Police Solikovskogo more like a massacre - as he was splattered with blood. To courtyard heard cries tortured, monsters wound up the gramophone and included it on full blast.
Underground hung by the neck to the window frame, simulating death by hanging, and feet to the ceiling hook. And the beat, beat, beat - with sticks and whips wire nuts at the end. Girls hanged braids and hair is not kept, dropped. Young Guard crushed the door fingers, under the nails driven into the needle of socks, put on a hot plate, cut a star on the chest and back. They broke bones, knocked out and burned his eyes, cut off his arms and legs ...
The executioners, having learned from Pocheptsova that Tretyakevich - one of the leaders of the "Young Guard", decided by all means get him to talk, thinking that it is easier to handle the rest. He was tortured with cruelty, he was disfigured beyond recognition. But Victor was silent. Then, among those arrested and the city spread the rumor: all Tretyakevich issued. But comrades Victor did not believe it.
Winter cold night January 15, 1943 the first group of the Young, was among them Tretyakevich lucky to be executed to the destroyed mine. When they were placed on the edge of the pit, Victor grabbed by the neck, and the deputy chief of police tried to entice him with a 50-meter depth. Terrified executioner pale with fear, and almost no resistance, and only came to the rescue policeman who hit Tretyakevich gun to the head, the policeman rescued from death.
January 16 was shot the second group of underground fighters, 31 th - third. One of the group managed to escape from the place of execution. It was Anatoly Kovalev, subsequently disappeared.
The prison remained four. They were taken to the city Rovenki Krasnodon district and shot on February 9 were present, along with Oleg Koshevoy.
In Krasnodon on February 14 Soviet troops entered. On 17 February it became mourning, full of weeping and wailing. From the deep, dark pit tub were getting tortured body of boys and girls. Check them was difficult, some parents of children identified only by their clothes.
At a mass grave put a wooden obelisk with the names of the victims and with the words:
And a drop of blood to your hot,
As sparks flare up in the darkness of life
And many brave hearts ignite!
Names Victor Tretyakevich on the obelisk was not! His mother, Anna Iosifovna, never took off her black dress and tried to walk to the grave later to find no one there. Of course, she did not believe in betrayal son, they did not believe, and most of its fellow, but the conclusions of the Komsomol committee led Toritsina and subsequently released a wonderful artistically novel Fadeev had an impact on the hearts and minds of millions of people. We can only regret that in respect of the historical truth Fadeyev's novel "The Young Guard" is not proved equally remarkable.
The investigating authorities also took the story of the betrayal Tretyakevich and even when subsequently arrested true traitor Pocheptsov confessed, with Victor charge is not removed. And since, according to party leaders, a traitor can not be commissioner, in this rank erected Oleg Mishka, whose signature was on December Komsomol card - "Commissioner guerrilla group" Hammer "Kashuk".
After 16 years, he managed to arrest one of the most ferocious executioners tortured the Young - Basil Podtynnogo. During the investigation, he said: Tretyakevich slandered, but he, in spite of the brutal torture and beatings, no one gave.
Since almost 17 years the truth has triumphed. The decree of December 13, 1960 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR rehabilitated Victor Tretyakevich and awarded him the Order of the Patriotic War I degree (posthumously). His name was included in all official documents, together with the names of other heroes of "Young Guard".
Josephovna Anna, mother of Victor and not withdrawn black mourning clothes, stood in front of the presidium of the solemn meeting in Voroshilovgrad when she was awarded the posthumous award son.
Crowded to overflowing hall, standing, applauding her, but it seemed to be happening already and not happy. Maybe because his mother always knew her son - an honest man ... Anna Josephovna turned to her companion are awarded only one request: do not show these days in the city of the film "Young Guard".
So, a traitor to Tretyakevich Victor was shot, but it with the rank of Commissioner and not restored and the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, which was awarded the remaining lost members of staff of the "Young Guard", not awarded.
In concluding this short story about the heroic and tragic days Krasnodontsev, I want to say that the heroism and tragedy of the "Young Guard" is probably still far from being solved. But it is our history, and we can not forget it.
Crimea, Theodosia, in August 1940. Happy young girls. The most beautiful, with dark braids - Anya Sopova.
31 января 1943 after severe torture Anya was dropped in the pit of the mine № 5. She was buried in a mass grave of heroes on the central square of the city of Krasnodon.
... Now on TV is "Young Guards". I remember as a child we love this picture! We dreamed to be like the brave Krasnodontsev ... they swore to avenge their deaths. What can I say, tragic and beautiful story of the Young shook then the whole world, not just the children's immature minds.
The film became a box-office leader in 1948, and playing the main roles, nobody knows the students at VGIK, immediately received the title of winner of the Stalin Prize - an exceptional case. "Became famous" - it's about them.
Ivanov Mordjukova Makarova, Gurzo, Shagalova - letters from around the world came to his bags.
Gerasimov, of course, sorry viewers. Fadeev - readers.
What really happened that winter in Krasnodon, no paper, no film could not pass.
Ulyana Gromova, 19 years
& Quot; ... .On the back cut a five-pointed star, a broken right arm, broken ribs & quot; (Archive of the KGB of the USSR Council of Ministers).
Lida Androsov, 18
& Quot; ... remove without eyes, ears, hands, with a rope around his neck, which strongly hit the body. On the neck is visible baked blood & quot; (Museum of "Young Guard", p. 1, d. 16).
Sopova Anya, 18
"She was beaten, hung by his braids ... From pit Anna lifted one oblique - another broken».
Shura Bondarev, 20 years
& Quot; ... removed without a head and right chest, body battered, bruised, is black & quot ;.
Lyuba Shevtsova, 18 (pictured first on the left in the second row)
Lyuba Shevtsova, 18
February 9, 1943, after months of torture in a shot fulminate forest near the town together with Oleg Koshevoi S.Ostapenko, D.Ogurtsovym and V.Subbotinym.
Angelina Samoshina 18 years.
"The body of Angelina showed signs of torture: unscrewed hands cut off ears, cut a star on the cheek" (RGASPI. F. M-1. Op. 53. AD 331)
Shura Dubrovin, 23 years
"Before my eyes stand two images: Cheerful young Komsomol Shura Dubrovin and mutilated body, lifted from the mine. I saw her corpse with only the lower jaw. Her girlfriend - Maya Peglivanova lying in a coffin without eyes, without lips, with his hands torn off ... »
Peglivanova Maya, 17 years
"Maya disfigured corpse: cut off the breast, legs broken. Removed all outerwear. " (RGASPI. F. M-1. Op. 53. AD 331) in his coffin lay lips with his hands torn off & quot ;.
Tonya Ivanihina, 19 years
& Quot; ... removed without eyes, his head bandaged with a handkerchief and wire, cut the breast & quot ;.
Sergei Tyulenin, 17 years
"January 27, 1943, Sergei was arrested. Soon they took the father, mother, confiscated all things. The police tortured Sergei strongly in the presence of his mother, staged a confrontation with a member of the "Young Guard" Victor Lukyancheiko, for they did not recognize each other.
January 31 Sergey tortured for the last time, and then his half-dead, along with other comrades were taken to the mine pits number 5 ... »
Funeral Sergei Tyulenin
Nina Minaeva, 18
& Quot; ... My sister recognized by woolen leggings - the only clothes that remained on it. Hands Nina were broken, one eye knocked out, shapeless chest wounds all over the body with black bands ... & quot;
Tosya Eliseenko, 22 years old
"The corpse was disfigured Tosi, torturing, she was put on a hot stove».
Victor Tretyaknvich, 18
& Quot; ... Among the latter raised the Victor Tretyakevich. His father, Joseph Kuzmich, in the thin coat patched every day stood, grasping the pole, do not look away from the pit. And when his son recognized - without a face, with a black and blue back, with crushed hands - he threw himself though, he fell to the ground. The body of Victor did not find traces of bullets - then dropped him alive ... & quot;
Oleg Mishka, 16 years
When, in January 1943, the arrests began, he attempted to cross the front line. However, to return to the city. Near Railway Kortushino station was captured by the Nazis and sent to the police first, and then to the district offices of the Gestapo Rovenky. After the terrible torture with L.G.Shevtsovoy, S.M.Ostapenko, D.U.Ogurtsovym V.F.Subbotinym and February 9, 1943, he was shot in the forest rattlesnake near the town.
Boris Glavan, 22 years old
"From the pit was removed associated with Yevgeny Shepelev barbed wire face-to-face, hands chopped off. His face disfigured, ripped open the belly ».
Yevgeny Shepelev, 19 years
& Quot; ... Eugene chopped off hands, pulled stomach, his head smashed .... & quot; (RGASPI. F. M-1. Op. 53. AD 331)
Vladimir Zhdanov, 17 years