Chirkei HPP

Chirkei hydroelectric - hydroelectric power station on the river Sulak (15 km upstream from Miatlinskaya HPP) in Dagestan. It is the largest hydroelectric power station in the North Caucasus and the highest arch dam in the Russian Federation. As well as Miatlinskaya HPP is a step Sulakskiye cascade ... Miatlinskaya and Chirkeysk HPP connects through serpentine ridge Nadir-Beck, almost on top of which in Soviet times was built town hydropower Oaks. If you suddenly have to pass on this road, take the primer going to rig the relay - just a few hundred meters away is a great natural viewing platform from which the visible and Miatlinskaya HPP and HPP Chirkei and (if you know where to look to have good optics + ) hydroelectric dam Chiryurtionskaya.












The village hydropower Oaks and Chirkeyskaya reservoir. Before perestroika Oaks, like any other Soviet "scientific" town flourished - there were branches of the Dagestan Polytechnic Institute, Kuibyshev Power Engineering College, an educational building plant, semiconductor plant, garment factory, 3 cinemas, 5 kindergartens, a large school.




In the 80 years of the twentieth century just at the point where now there is a repeater tower unique vetropoligon - test site and study of wind power generators. The location was perfect, because here the wind never subsides. There were tested including wind turbines Tushinskogo machine factory. As known to all its obscurity 90s vetropoligon was abandoned. Part wind was pillaged, and the other part remains in the form of unnecessary majestic ruins.

The right of the tower is visible white mast of a wind turbine. The blade from him, torn and twisted by the wind, lying next to him also. Other ruinirovannye design polygon are unrecognizable even while near.




Chirkei hydroelectric plant built in a narrow gorge Chirkeyskaya depth of over 200 meters (width of the gorge at the bottom - 15 meters, at the top - 300 meters). The main power source of the river Sulak - meltwater alpine snows and glaciers and rainfall. Terms of construction is more complex because of the terrain. Work on the basic structures of the station were launched in 1966 with the sinking of the construction of the tunnel length of 728 meters and a cross section of 13 meters.

Hereinafter - archival photographs found on the internet (unfortunately, their authorship is unknown to me). From left to right, top to bottom: (1) and (2) - in 1965, the development of hydroelectric excavation; (3) - giving concrete cable-crane; (4) - overlapping Sulak directed blast; (5) - blasting work on the development of the pit and the banks of the river; (6) - installation of penstocks station.



On the construction of hydroelectric Chirkeyskaya the first time in the USSR was widely used method of contour blasting preliminary scheleobrazovaniem (the so-called "smooth breakaway"). Construction of the station prevented earthquake of 8 points in May 1970 - the works were suspended for almost six months, during which clean the slopes of the talus after the earthquake. To fix the unstable rock blocks on the left bank of the pit slope of the power house were built retaining walls in combination with the prestressing metal anchors. In deviated wells to a depth of 25 meters installed anchors 300 intense. In horizontal tunnels installed prestressed strands of high-strength steel with a diameter of 56 mm.

From left to right, top to bottom: (1) - concreting slopes unstable array; (2, top) - aul teal gone under flooding; (2, bottom) - builders rally in honor of the beginning of the flooding of the reservoir; (3) - Installation of the stator shaft hydraulic unit; (4) - lab tests the concrete mix; (5) - in 1974, flooding the village Chirkei.



The primary means of mechanization for the supply and laying of concrete in the dam blocks were three cable crane of 25 tons and a span of 500 meters, working with radio-controlled cylindrical tubs with a capacity of 8 cubic meters. From concrete plants to cable cranes (distance 100 meters) concrete mix delivered BelAZ dump trucks and KrAZ. On the construction of the station was also mechanized installation and removal of the formwork (special manipulator on Loader E-304), the process of leveling concrete mix (a special machine based on tractor crane TK-53), the process of removing cement film with a horizontal concrete surface (self-propelled zachistnoj machine based on tractor DT-20), as well as other processes and activities. Due to the high degree of mechanization of construction was achieved the highest performance at the time - 12 cubic meters of concrete on 1 man-day.

From left to right, top to bottom: (1) - construction of a water tunnel; (2) - 02.28.1970, the ceremonial laying of the first cubic meter of concrete in the dam body; (3 big picture right) - the dam is ready; (4) - the computer room Chirkejskaya hydroelectric power station on the day of the start of the first unit.



The dam was put under the pressure of 13 August 1974. Hydraulic units commissioned in series in 1974 (GA-1), 1975 (GA-2, CA-3), 1976 (GA-4). In commercial operation Chirkei HPP was introduced in 1981.

From left to right, top to bottom: (1) - water supply lines are built; (2) - the final stage of construction of the dam; (3) - Start of the first hydraulic unit; (4) - launch of the first hydraulic unit; (5) - Village Oaks hydrobuilders



The structure of hydroelectric facilities Chirkeyskaya include: altitude arch dam, powerhouse, the service spillway, open switchgear (ORU) 330 kV. The height of the dam - 232, 5 meter length along the ridge - 338 meters. The central part of the dam - The station. Diversion structure is an inclined concrete structure made at the upper bound of the dam. Water inlet from its originate 4 Pressure penstocks diameter of 5, 5 meters (plus 1, 5 meters of reinforced concrete shell)

View of the dam, reservoir and station building from the observation deck of the right bank.



Schemes above, in full face and profile Chirkeysk HPP borrowed from the site "RusHydro».







Chirkeysk HPP building (unlike Miatlinskaya HPP) dam type and is located directly at the downstream face of the dam cork. In order to place units with a minimum of tie-in to the steep walls of the gorge, a project was undertaken paired device units (2x2 in parallel with a common mounting platform in the middle). Transformers thus placed on the roof of the machine hall. This original solution is unique in the practice of hydraulic engineering.

Power house and transformer platform at its overlap.



Dam and strengthen the rock mass of the left bank.



Crane valves penstocks production of the dam.



Chirkeyskaya reservoir has an area of ​​42, 4 square kilometers, its capacity - 2, 78 cubic kilometers. When you create a reservoir was flooded village Chirkei old - it was moved to a new location.



OSG-330 kV and body waterworks located on the right top of the gorge.



Among hozpostroek hydroelectric power are seen massive concrete cubes - is the foundation of cable crane, which is being built with the help of the station.



Entrance to the building of hydroelectric power station through road tunnel longer than 800 meters from the right bank.



Sulak after tailrace Chirkeysk HPP.



Idle spillway is designed as a tunnel with an open drain tray inside the left bank of the cliff. At 85 meters from the dam located inlet span of 22 meters. From him under a lot of slope is the tunnel (width - 9 meters, height - 12 meters) in length of 160 meters. Then it goes into the slightly inclined portion length of 350 meters and only then - in the open 200-meter springboard tray and side-discharge damper. In my opinion - a great water park.

In view of the extremely unfortunate own photos used photo from the website of the Joint supervisory control of power systems of the South. In the photo - the entrance portal of idle spillway.



Chirkei HPP with the lower observation deck. Right perfectly visible massive spillway chute.





Transformer pad and the left bank.



Concrete wall.



Transformer platform and the right bank.



Unusual feeling when you stand next to a large object. Due to the fact that the dam arch both in length and in profile, it hangs over you a huge canopy.





Well once again the view from the lower observation deck.



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