10 of the most famous products of Tula gunsmiths

February 26, 1712 Russian Emperor Peter I issued a decree on the basis of the Tula arms factory - then became legendary enterprise with which the many successes of the domestic defense industry. TT pistol, Mosin rifle, machine gun Maxim - Today we will talk about the top ten most famous samples of products produced by this key factory in Russia.

Will be 20 photos + text source.

Berdan rifle

Tula Armory affair began to engage in the sixteenth century, and by the end of the seventeenth in this city has been a lot of individual artists or small businesses for the production of weapons. And it is not surprising that this is where Emperor Peter I ordered to build a major arms factory in Russia. This happened in 1712.

In the next half century the Tula factory produced many beautiful and not so samples of firearms, but the first truly famous and legendary model was the so-called "Berdan rifle" - Berdan rifle with a sliding gate. Its production was mastered in 1879.

Berdan rifles. Photo source: forum.guns.ru

Mass production Berdan rifle allowed the plant to reach a new level of development, to grow quantitatively and qualitatively, to nurture talented designer, determine the future of the plant. For example, Sergei Mosin.

Berdan rifle was produced until the end of the nineteenth century, and in the armies of different countries used later. It is believed that the last case of its use in military operations took place during the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940, when the Finns because of the lack of weapons had to use Berdan rifle, kept in stock since the time when Finland was part of the Russian Empire.

Berdan rifles. Photo source: forum.guns.ru


Young Designer Sergei Ivanovich Mosin came to work in the Tula factory in 1875, immediately after completing training at the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy in St. Petersburg. In 1880 he was listed as the head of the tool shop, and in 1891 was approved by the famous trilinear rifle, which received the name of its creator.

Trilinear Mosin rifle. Photo source: csru.ru

However, the mechanism of the shop "trehlineyki" was borrowed from weapons developed by a Belgian revolver - the system was more successful.

Mosin rifle was produced in different variations with significant changes made in 1930, until 1965. It was successfully held two world wars and is still used in some armies as sniper, ceremonial, and even combat. They love it rebels in "hot spots" of the world and the hunters (the majority of Russian copies after the decommissioning of the armed forces have been remodeled in the hunting).

Trilinear Mosin rifle. Photo source: ru.gdefon.com

Maxim machine gun

In 1904 Russia bought the UK rights to the production of machine gun of Maxim (in honor of Hiram Stevens Maxim designer). And already in 1910 the Tula gunsmiths significantly upgraded its, making it smaller in size and weight by replacing carriage wheel on the machine and changing the cartridges used in the genital.

Maxim machine gun. Photo source: ru.warriors.wikia.com

The first combat use in the Russian army machine gun Maxim received by the Russian-Japanese war. We use it during the First World War and the Civil War (it is set in the famous weapons Makhno carts, bringing terror to Priazovskiye and Black Sea steppes, and the machine-gunner Anka Chapayev do not forget), and he lived up to the Great Patriotic War.

Production of Maxim machine gun at the Tula arms factory was completed in 1945, but it was used in the Red Army and later. Last recorded fact of history of its use occurred in 1969 during the Sino-Soviet conflict on the island.

Tachanka with Maxim machine gun. Photo source: chayka.kherson.ua

Aviation gun ShKAS

In 1930, was designed in 1932 and put into mass production at the Tula arms factory was the first Soviet automatic rapid-aircraft gun - ShKAS, which became the main weapon of domestic aircraft until the end of the Second World War.

Aviation gun ShKAS. Photo source: opoccuu.com

In 1937, it was developed an advanced modification - UltraShKAS, allowed to increase the rate up to 2800-3000 rounds per minute. There is a legend that in the bunker with Hitler in 1945, found a copy of such weapons, located in a glass box. Allegedly, the F├╝hrer put the German designers in an example of the machine gun and required them to develop a successful model at least.

Aviation gun ShKAS. Photo source: nakop.ru

TT pistol

TT pistol (Tula Tokarev) - this is probably the most famous weapon ever produced in this arms factory. Its development began in 1929, when the army leadership decided to abandon the Nagai and other foreign handguns, held at the Red Army. The development won the competition announced by the designer Fedor Tokarev, and in 1931 was made a test batch of a thousand pieces. Officially adopted TT was adopted only in 1934.

TT pistol. Photo source: boepodgotovka.ucoz.ru

Tula Tokarev distinguished by simplicity of design, ease of handling and maintenance, compactness, and low cost of production. It was produced until 1953, until it was replaced in the Army pistol Makarov. In Soviet times, he has long been in service with the police, and now they are ushers, collectors and some other services.

TT pistol. Photo source: army.lv

Self-loading rifle Tokarev

Another well-known weapon developed by Fedor Tokarev became automatic self-loading rifle, production of which began at the Tula plant in 1939 and that same year she officially entered the Soviet army.

Self-loading rifle Tokarev. Photo source: topwar.ru

Automatic rifle Tokarev replaced the long-obsolete Mosin rifle. It was one of the best weapons in the world in its class in the middle of the twentieth century. Furthermore, in the production of this rifle first started using a conveyor, enabling faster and cheaper process of its creation. However, consisting of 143 parts (of which the spring 22) SVT still cost several times more expensive than the same rifle Mosin.

Self-loading rifle Tokarev. Photo source: opoccuu.com

By the middle of the Second World War, it became clear that for a variety of advantages, Tokarev rifle has significant disadvantages that the designer was not able to solve. This is an unnecessary design complexity, high cost, the need for very careful maintenance and more time for training recruits handling it. And so in 1945 it was decided to stop the production of these weapons.

Self-loading rifle Tokarev. Photo source: opoccuu.com

Aviation gun ShVAK

Another model weapons produced at the Tula plant during the war and forgotten after its completion - this gun ShVAK (Shpitalnaya-Vladimirov Air Launcher). It was established on the basis of the same machine gun in a test which proved that his design could withstand the increase in the size of the barrel to caliber 20 mm. History has preserved the name of the first pilot who had the courage to try a new gun in a flight - in 1936 he was Valery Chkalov on the plane I-16.

Although guns ShVAK were certain shortcomings in the Great Patriotic War in the Tula arms factory and other defense enterprises of the USSR it was a massive release. Total until 1946 produced 100,920 copies of this aircraft guns.

Aviation gun ShVAK. Photo source: Liveinternet.ru

ATRA contest

Since 1970, at the Tula plant produces antitank missile system "Competition", designed by local design office. This is one of the most popular and mass anti-tank systems in the world, who is or was last in service in more than thirty countries.

ATRA Competition for APC. Photo source: ng.ru

Versatility ATRA contest allows you to mount it on the BRDM-2, BMP-1P, BMP-2, BMD-2 and BMD-3. Upgraded in the eighties, competition-M and is still produced in large quantities for the Russian army.

ATRA contest. Photo source: zonwar.ru

Under-barrel launcher GP-25 "Bonfire┬╗

In 1978, at the Tula arms factory began production grenade launcher GP-25, which is used in combination with AKM, AK-74 (AK-74SU, incidentally, also produced in Tula), as well as other domestic assault rifles.

Under-barrel launcher GP-25 fire. Photo source: gunsru.ru

Simple and reliable device is still produced in Tula. True, in the course of its upgraded version - GP-30 "Obuvka." Sighting range it hinged fire is 150-200 meters, maximum - 400.

Under-barrel launcher GP-25 fire. Photo source: Wikipedia

Automaton-grenade launcher A-91

A-91 - a successful attempt to make the automatic, which would not need to attach an external grenade launcher. Both devices are a single weapon - a compact, lightweight and efficient. This launcher has its own sight, mounted on the left as well as the trigger, located in front of an automaton.

Versatile and reliable automaton-grenade launcher A-91 was designed in Tula in 1990 and put into production - in 1991. Now it is used in special operations army and Interior Ministry of the Russian Federation, as well as actively is exported - it is one of the best models of the world's weapons of this class.

Automaton-grenade launcher A-91. Photo source: ohrana.ru

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