The most grandiose creations of science (14 pics + text)



1. SuperKamiokande, is the modernization of Kamiokande-II, is located in the mountains of Japan, at a depth of 1 km below the ground.

His detector - a huge reservoir (40x40 m) stainless steel, filled with 50,000 tons of pure water, which serves as a target for neutrinos. On the surface reservoir with 11,146 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Inside the detector that is used for physics research, surrounded by a layer of ordinary water, which is called an external detector and the photomultipliers also controlled to prevent the core detector any neutrino detector produced in the surrounding rock. In addition to the light collector and a huge amount of water, electronics, computers, calibration devices and water treatment equipment installed in or near the detector.



In 1998, participants in the experiment SuperKamiokande announced registration of phenomena similar to neutrino oscillations. During the experiment, the number of muon neutrinos produced in the upper layers of Earth's atmosphere, the collision of cosmic-ray protons with nuclei of air coming into the detector from different distances. It turned out that fewer muon neutrinos come from those areas where the neutrinos travel long distances. These results give reason to believe that the number of neutrinos of this class depends on the path traveled by them, which may be a consequence of the transformation of neutrinos from one type to another.
Cosmic-ray protons in a collision with an atom give rise to a charged pion that decays into a muon and muon neutrino.

2. Benefield Anechoic Facility




In an anechoic chamber antenna range Benefield BAF (Benefield Anechoic Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, CA) were tested hypersonic demonstrator X-43A equipped with a ramjet engine with supersonic combustion (SPVRD). With an anechoic chamber investigated parameters such as the effective reflective / absorbing surface and the exact characteristics of the antenna device objects tested different types of avionics, including radio, weapon control systems and electronic countermeasures means containers.




Camera landfill BAF - the biggest in the world. Its dimensions (80h76h21 m) (*) allow you to experience here object the size of B-52 bombers and military transport aircraft C-17. X-43A 3.7 m length was the smallest object tested in the chamber. There were tested telemetry transmitter demonstrator, working in a range of S, and the transponder antenna range C.


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