Fifty eight million three hundred thirty thousand four hundred ninety fourOf course, we knew all along and remembered that it is not just doing research, we obtain a new scientific knowledge, and create weapons, and a terrible weapon. Of course, in this question it was necessary to have clear internal position
. Radiy Ilkaev Ivanovich – member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, doctor of physico-mathematical Sciences, laureate of State prizes of the USSR and the Russian Federation, the prize of the government of the Russian Federation, scientific Director of the Russian Federal nuclear center – VNII of experimental physics (Sarov), honored scientist of the Russian Federation, awarded with the state awards of the Russian Federation and the gold medal of the RAS named after A. D. Sakharov, winner of the International prize of St. Andrew "For faith and loyalty", a member of the Patriarchal Council for culture. An outstanding expert in the fields of theoretical and experimental nuclear physics related to nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, the author of over 550 scientific papers. His major contribution to the creation of the domestic nuclear and thermonuclear weapons is to develop primary sources of thermonuclear charges, variable charges of the power weapon with a special striking factors in ensuring the reliability and safety of nuclear weapons in modern conditions, the study of the effects of nuclear explosions, the modernization of the experimental and research activities in the Contract about universal prohibition of tests of nuclear weapons. Major organizer of scientific-technical activities in the field of nuclear weapons development and scientific-technical support of Russia's nuclear Arsenal. One of the initiators of the celebrations of 2003, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the glorification of St. Seraphim of Sarov.About how
I was Born in Siberia, 300 km to the North from Irkutsk, father was the headmaster. And then he entered military service and we moved from there, lived in different cities, including in the town of Pushkin near Leningrad, now again Tsarskoye Selo. I studied there since the eighth grade and graduated from high school No. 407 with a gold medal.
I believe that the education of the scientist have the basic relationship for the last three years of school. In our time it was the eighth, ninth and tenth classes. Earlier years to becoming a scientist are much less. Yes, they are of universal significance, in these years, developing curiosity, and other human qualities. But if to speak about the way in science, you need to clearly understand that it starts when there is a keen interest in learning, knowledge, problem solving. At least had no difficulties with the development of the school curriculum. But this is not enough. But when personal interest appears to scientific knowledge, when solve problems, and suffer not, and then a flash of inspiration...
Ivan Semenovich and Olga Timofeevna Ilkaeva with children. The son of radium in the lap of the father
It is necessary, of course, to participate in various Olympiads and similar competitions and in all sorts of circles, of which we had many at the time and where difficult issues beyond the school curriculum. Engaged in the circles of physics, mathematics, solved problems, discussed what is and what is not. Well, all as expected.
And when my children finished school, they also studied at the extramural physico-mathematical schools, got the job, solved all of them. That is, first of all, we have to work, and work fine, head. This initial stage of human evolution – choosing your path in the first place professional way.
Most importantly, it should awaken the interest of all of this. And if such interest is shown, it means that man makes for himself a professional choice. And then everything goes calm.
Your professional choice I made. Absolutely. He entered the physico-mechanical faculty of Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, it was then the most prestigious faculty in St. Petersburg and Leningrad University was not very popular. But after two years of study seemed to me interesting is not an applied discipline, and steep theoretical physics, and I've passed the theoretical group of the physics Department of Leningrad state University, at the third course.
And my friend switched from physical-mechanical Department of Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. By the way, it was a very nice Institute, there is no question. There were a lot of very important necessary items, without a doubt. So together with a friend and moved in October after he returned from the virgin.
Academician Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock was head of the theoretical physics Department of Leningrad University.
We knew to whom we go. The head of the Department there was academician Fock, Vladimir Alexandrovich. And we understood this level. The theoretical group was very small, less than 20 people, very strict selection. We moved only because we are very well studied, was a solid five, and because the University we took. They gave me a very good education, was absolutely wonderful items. We read a lecture the scholar Fok, academician Smirnov Vladimir Ivanovich, Matysik taught by Professor Olga Aleksandrovna Ladyzhenskaya, she became an academician later, in 1990. It is the color of Russian and Soviet science.
Professor Olga Aleksandrovna Ladyzhenskaya taught us mathematical physics. Academician she became later in 1990.
About life in the profession We graduated in 1961. And it seemed to me that the center of physics moved to Moscow. The way it really was. To our University came the representatives of VNIIEF. And when we found out that there is a top-secret Institute, work academics Yuli Borisovich Khariton, Andrei Sakharov, and Yakov zel'dovich, representing by that time the Moscow scientific school, we said to ourselves: why don't we try and work in such a place.
The train station is the same today as it was in 1961 when we arrived in Arzamas-16.
Seeing him, my wife Lidiya Alexandrovna said, "Well, tomorrow we have to leave". But we remained.
From the theoretical group we had several people... my wife, Lydia Alexandrovna (she also finished aergrupp, and we had already got married), Alex Pevnitsky, Sergey Kholin, it is today known in VNIIEF people, distinguished professionals, and another Matysik, Leonid Ustinov. And the whole team decided to go to a closed city.
The thought of it appeared shortly before graduation. We thought about this and decided that in VNIIEF there are interesting tasks, interesting dear leaders, world-famous scientists, and that meant that there is a large scientific school. So we decided to go here.
. Married Lydia Alexandrovna at the University.
As we arrived from the big city, the first impression when we arrived in this small town, this wooden station was, of course, quite certain. Lydia Alexandrovna said, "Well, tomorrow we have to leave". I said, "Come on, we still see how people live here, what are you doing".
And then when met with experts, first and foremost, with academics Andrei Sakharov and Yakov Borisovich zel'dovich, and began to focus on specific work issues, everything changed. Having a trust relationship. When we were introduced to Andrei Dmitriyevich, we have not yet been admitted to the secrets, because when the permit takes time, and he immediately gave us a lot of information a high level of secrecy.
One of the first people we met at the facility, was academician Andrei Sakharov, who worked here from 1950 to 1968.
We, of course, these people loved it and we gradually joined in the work. Then the youth was quickly drawn to the important and responsible business. And nuclear testing went on, and weren't that many specialists, so young people very quickly was part of the core areas of work. And when we've settled into this business, there was interest in what work here.
What was the most interesting? The fact that there is not any one particular direction, and the combination of many areas, a large amount of a variety of physical knowledge. But in General is the physics of high energy density. And, of course, it was interesting to see the wide formation such things. And was the pain associated with your selection. Or do you do the fundamental questions that are of interest to physical science, or combine new knowledge with the specific, including inventive activity, which is needed practice. And in this combination of science and practice – all the specifics VNIIEF.
Academician Yuli Khariton was the founder and scientific Director of the research Institute from 1946 to 1994.
In the end, I made a choice and decided that we should eat in the main theme really. But it was difficult. Because I have a University education main specialty was elementary particle physics, essentially, quantum field theory. And here is another. However, I have made this choice. It was important that almost immediately came the first results and successes. And when this powerful case has entered...
In 1962, a year after coming here, I have first went for the nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk polygon. Then the youth was brought up very quickly. It was the last session of aerial nuclear tests, they ended by Treaty of 1963. And I was able to catch them. Later we went to underground testing. Constantly and went to Semipalatinsk, at the North polygon, a New Earth.
Academician Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich, a brilliant scientist, the main theoretician of the first atomic bomb, worked in the Institute from 1948 to 1965.
I was in the Department, Boris Dmitrievich Bondarenko. He was very active and inventive person. In the same Department and worked Viktor Nikitovich Mikhaylov, who later, in the most difficult 90-e years was the Minister for atomic energy. Most importantly, was complete freedom of research, freedom of creativity.
Just a few years after his arrival here some of my suggestions have been implemented in hardware and tested on the test. And after a time was formulated in a rather serious direction works. And gone and gone... the Main thing was the excellent results. And then came all sorts of prizes, protection...
Of course, nature several times we were punished for arrogance, and we got is not what I wanted. After such failures many months of worry, feeling uncomfortable. After all, when you many hundreds of professionals who all these devices do, prepare for tests, and then you're on the check test – and past, it is very a lot of trouble and stress. But then find a reason why it happened, correct. But this is not enough that you have corrected, you have to prove to everyone that really found the cause, and only then, you believe again. It is a serious challenge and hard work.About the philosophy of war and peace
, of course, We knew all along and remembered that it is not just doing research, we obtain a new scientific knowledge, and create weapons, and a terrible weapon. Of course, in this question it was necessary to have clear internal position.
Our founding fathers developed a reasonable philosophy, which is that we do all this not for war, and to ensure that it never happened. Remember that first created nuclear weapons, then the hydrogen, and it soon became clear that it is possible to create hydrogen weapons very high power is almost unlimited. But from a practical point of view this meant that thermonuclear war under these conditions, with such unlimited opportunities of energy becomes impossible. And our philosophy was that we work for peace, not for war.
After the meeting, Yuli Borisovich Khariton with Brezhnev in VNIIEF began the construction of large-scale physical experimental facilities.
This is one of the amplifier channels of laser fusion "Iskra-5", the construction of which was completed in 1989.
Our senior colleagues have formulated this philosophy from the very beginning of work on nuclear weapons and passed on to each new generation of researchers. We were convinced that our country must be strong, must have excellent fusion weapons, and then there will be no war. We are not preparing for war, we can prevent major conflicts. Of course, all sorts of local conflicts always were and will be, here it's not about that.
Without a doubt, is a formidable weapon. And we maintain the peace, ensure the peaceful coexistence having these weapons as a guarantee. All these issues were constantly discussed in our environment, was very important for the personal sense of self of each of us.
Because I was raised so that we are working on peace on Earth, when the revival of the Russian Orthodox Church, I was very comfortable and easy to cooperate with her. This collaboration also fits into our philosophy. We work for people, to prevent the horror that occurs during major military action.
Researcher of theoretical Department of VNIIEF Radiy Ilkaev, 60-ies.Freedom of speech and freedom of thought
we Have in VNIIEF was quite relaxing. To discuss what is happening, to criticize the state of things and tell each other not what the official leaders was in order. And it was done not maliciously, not with anguish, but quietly. Freedom of discussion was at a high level. No wonder Andrei Sakharov, who had their own point of view on many issues, was born as a thinker and political figure here. However, he at present was very moderate proposals.
A New Earth. The village test Belushka
Remember that he offered. Let's take that is best in socialism and capitalism, and will in this direction to move. Compared with the economic and social model, which is now accepted in Russia, Andrei Dmitrievich had a very left-wing views, his ideas of the current liberals are now on the threshold would be rejected. What was proposed by Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov, was so calm and intelligent (by today's standards), that to criticize it only for idealism and nothing more.
Andrei Dmitrievich here, of course, was not the only one. And he and many others quietly discussed all that they think is right, it is a fact. We had theorists who directly wrote letters to the highest leaders of the country and offered their recipes like to develop further, with what speed and so on. So here was compared to other places much more relaxing. It is primarily developed with one of our three outstanding academics – Julius B. Hariton, Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich and Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov. They have created this atmosphere.
Testers of experimental physics at the Novaya Zemlya test range.
It must be said that the contact of scientists with the ruling top was then quite good and communication was, and disputes. Was techniques for scientists in the Kremlin, where it was possible to communicate directly. Andrei Sakharov was arguing with Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev about which test should be carried out and which do not. You know, when Andrei Dmitrievich calls directly to Nikita Khrushchev and discussing with them the questions, it says something.
Had a lot of work, but life was not only from her; we also had a feast with the reading of poetry.
Many questions were understanding, and in some areas it was not. For example, Andrei Sakharov believed that without the need of nuclear testing could not be done, because it can have some negative consequences, but his point of view support from the political leadership. But when Yuli Khariton had met Leonid Brezhnev, he agreed with him about the significant development of the experimental base of the Institute, and we began to build large-scale physical installation. That is, the contact was, we listened and for the most part heard.
Hours of discussion of complex scientific questions.About the movement toward Church
has always worried Me is the difference between the requirements of Soviet ideology and of Christian morality. How to be a good person, what qualities should he have? And if you look at these demands, they are very close, seemingly of contradictions then and there. Requirements of people who genuinely care about the moral health of the people and the norms of the Russian Orthodox Church is so closely in contact that the contradictions-no actually I haven't seen. But what was the difference in the lifestyle...
1991. The Patriarch walked from Near pustynki St. Seraphim of Sarov
to the Far pustynki. The whole town came out to accompany him.
I always thought that the moral formation of human life is a special focus. It should not be confused with our scientific worldview. It's a different area. Just as in physics is: a two-dimensional space and three-dimensional. And here appears another dimension. As in relativity theory, there is another dimension – time. This new dimension of the spiritual that lives by its own laws and does not contradict the worldview of the scientist. That to me always was somehow clear.
Where it came from, I don't know, I can't say. In the quiet attitude. The father was a teacher, then became a military Commissar, but some of the pressure in these matters has never been.
First visit of Patriarch Alexy II in the closed city of Arzamas-16 in 1991. Meeting at the airport.
When we went to his in Arzamas-16, passed through the nearby ancient city of Arzamas, through our surrounding poorer villages, it was a pity to look at ruined temples. Beautiful buildings in all senses. And on architecture, and on how they decorate the place, fill it with sense. I thought it is necessary to change the country and restore its spirit. And then I have decided for myself that it is necessary first of all to restore these churches. This is our story, our life, is, in the end, our beauty.
All of this inside was. Nobody convinced me, with me on the subject no one talked. It was the inner impulse. And when we were in a closed city first came the Patriarch in 1991, of course, I do all my business threw and went to meet him. There is a famous group photograph taken then, we used to say that her two patriarchs – Alexy II and Yuli Khariton, and now it turned out that three of the Patriarch – the Patriarch.
This photo taken at the memory of the bell tower of the Sarov Hermitage in 1991, used to be called "Patriarch", referring to sitting next to Patriarch Alexy II and Yuli Borisovich Khariton. Since 2009 it is called the "three patriarchs" – Metropolitan Kirill of Smolensk and Kaliningrad here too.
I have always believed that there is no contradiction between spiritual life and scientific life, they can only help each other. It is my inner philosophy. So I have always been very easy to collaborate with the Russian Orthodox Church and to help her.
We remember how the Church in 1996 helped us when we spent together in the Danilov monastery unique hearing "Nuclear weapons and national security of Russia", which allowed us to appeal to the country, to its citizens and to restore public confidence in the gun-nuclear.
And most wonderful memories I have of the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the canonization of St. Seraphim of Sarov in 2003. Remember, we are all convinced that a holiday at the Federal level, that if we are not spending, this one will never forgive. We appealed to the Patriarch, and the presidential envoy in the Volga Federal district, then it was Sergei Kiriyenko, to help make the appropriate decision of the government.
Celebration 2003 for the centenary of the canonization of St. Seraphim of Sarov began with a procession with the relics of the monk. The procession is approaching the Sarov Hermitage and goes past the former monastic hotel, where the management of VNIIEF.
Many officials, we are convinced that never such a Church-state holiday is not been and never will be. But when we managed to overcome this barrier, we felt tremendous enthusiasm of the people. For me it was a huge celebration. Literally for the first 9 months brought the theater of the historic Church building, restored the temple, perfectly restored, I do not imagine that this can be done in such a short time.
And then, when here in Sarov for three days and two nights were the relics of the monk Seraphim of Sarov, and the people came to bow to them, it was evidence of the unity of our people. This is well worth it.
The event was visited by Patriarch Alexy II and a huge number of Orthodox people, representatives of all the local churches of the world. Arrived and the President of the Russian Federation. It was an outstanding event in the spiritual life, and in our public life. Here joined together the spiritual strands, and it has been shown that we are one powerful nation. Even in a relatively small scale, but it was demonstrated. For me personally it made a huge impression.
Of course, in the Church-state cooperation is necessary to comply with the measure. I have always said and now say. Still, the spiritual life is a special direction, and do not confuse it and mix with the daily Affairs, including acute political issues, which can have only momentary value and nothing more. It must be their own independent direction with all the ensuing consequences. And in any case should not allow some of the clergy began to be regarded as ordinary officials. Certainly, everyday things are important too, but let them with the spiritual matters is impossible.About science and education today,
We went through a difficult 90-e years, and then a lot was not easy. The main task was to preserve and enhance our scientific capacity and therefore, in the first place to save qualified people, working groups, scientific schools. Thank God, today is going to be some opportunity to hope for the best.
Difficult 90-e years. Employees of VNIIEF at the rally demanding to stop the collapse of the nuclear industry.
Recently in the state, there was a positive rhetoric about science. Stated at the highest level that science is necessary and important. But this is only rhetoric. I think so, primarily because it is not a definite continues to be the fate of the Academy of Sciences. Without a strong Academy of science in Russia to develop seriously will not. These traditions were laid by Peter the Great.
It should be remembered that after he created the Russian Academy of Sciences, she is a hard earned and became truly Russian in its composition only after several decades. The formation of such public institutions as the Academy of Sciences, it is a very long process. And they must be handled carefully so as not to hurt, because the consequences can be very negative.
Exactly what no Academy of science and without academic of science, we never would have created neither the atomic bomb nor the hydrogen bomb. Even if formed many small laboratories with very smart people. And this is just one example. Same with space, energy and many other necessities of life.
The point, of course, and the amount of resources involved. The entire annual budget of the Academy of Sciences of approximately $ 2 billion. And only one U.S. Department of energy receives on their research programs, fundamental and applied $ 5 billion a year. Comparable resources and there are many other channels in various other areas of research. Of course, the fact that we have so, will not do.
Well, that appeared right words about the need for science. Some time ago, even such words were not. But in order for science developed for real, it is necessary to provide its basic financing. What is now formed of different grant funds, is wonderful, and the more funds the better, but there should be a base funding for science. Our country needs to be sure that we will not allow any lag from the leading countries of the world on key research areas.
And, of course, we need to build a research installation, not only to participate in the work being carried out in large facilities abroad. Must be their own installation, national. Please note, all developed countries are building them. Both Europe and America, Japan, and others.
Important positive movement is the beginning of the construction works we have in VNIIEF is the largest laser system in the UV-2M. We have all chances to successfully complete this project. Almost all the technology we have in Russia. We kept scientific schools, and technology that will allow it to do.
After the crisis of 90-ies today we have fully restored the recruitment of young experts necessary for the normal change of generations in the team. To us in VNIIEF now young children come after universities, many of them talented, motivated for work. However, we must soberly understand that this scientific center, which we had at the time, with the same level of personnel, will never happen again.
Then had the opportunity from across the country to send here best graduates. Now the opportunity is gone. The free labour market, free labor market, and there's nothing to do, in the economy today, there are more attractive to talented young people direction. Of course, for this reason, our personnel will be weaker than before.
But we still have a chance to make our Institute strong and in new condition. Because our work is very interesting and important, we are developing and building up our computational and experimental base, all the prerequisites to attract strong talented youth we have. The only thing we have now is greatly restricted, it is restriction of rights associated with the inability to sekretonositel to go abroad – on holiday, on treatment on study. I think more than 90% of young guys who would come to us, not talking, because the current attitude of the state to sekretonositelyami repels talented people. And today's young people with all their patriotism (and they are definitely patriots of Russia) people feel large and open world.
Thirty or forty years ago we were very simple: no one was allowed to travel abroad and we were not allowed. So we didn't feel something limited, set aside. And now... I don't know, whoever of those young people, who then agreed to come to the secret city of Arzamas-16, would agree to it today. This is a very serious problem which, of course, must be addressed at the highest level. What secrets should be protected and protected, it is no doubt, but it is necessary to do so, so as not to harm the primary case. Of course, the modernization of the system of protection of secrets must be conducted very professionally.
2003. Relics of the venerable Seraphim just went in procession again to Diveevo. Interview on the square in front of the bell tower of the Sarov Hermitage.On intellectuals and the struggle
If you look at the history of our Institute, clearly shows that all of his research areas created wrestlers. These people were precise and clear line. They knew what to do and fought for it. They had their own philosophy which they advocated, when it risked and eventually reached great results.
What now disturbs? Indifference. Maybe it's due to the fact that today everywhere the dominance of officials. This, in my opinion, a big mistake. Officer is still in function – figure uncreative, he is obliged to perform a specific set of actions. And when on many issues the decisions are taken only by officials, can be very, very serious error. In Economics, in science and elsewhere. The work of officials, in its own way, does not replace the fact that can do only creative people are engines of progress in all senses.
This part of our society, active people who fight for their ideas, for his ideas, for the fact that our country has developed more rapidly and were looking for their own way, this intelligent wedge – it doesn't matter. And without it...
After all, the Russian intelligentsia has always looked ahead and vigilantly many other groups of society. Without active and purposeful activities of our intelligentsia, our country will not develop. That's what bothers me. I believe that our Russian intelligentsia as a whole are still alive today, but a clear direction it does not.
This has already happened. Take, for example, years before the revolution: what was done correctly or incorrectly. The Russian intelligentsia has decided that the tsarist government needs to be destroyed. If you are intelligent and if you in his latest article scolded the tsarist government, you were wrong. But it so happened that after the destruction of tsarism all the traditional values associated with the same way of life went downhill. And Russian intellectuals-and not wanted, they were going to improve people's lives. This is an example of purposeful action, however, not constructive. After all, at the same time there were people who saw all these dangers and warned of them, but the society these people wouldn't listen.
Now, unfortunately, not seen such a constructive movement, if you like, scientific and ethical at the same time. Here's what worries me. And when there is no leader – no leader-persons, not individuals, and the leading social class, a whole squad of smart, educated, well-intentioned and constructive people – then comes complete disorder and inconsistency.
And the intellectuals – Yes, of course, exists in our days. To say otherwise would just be disrespectful to our people. But this layer is the most advanced and wonderful people we have, unfortunately, blurred and largely demoralized. And in the current very difficult conditions that exist in the world, the intelligentsia must be much more clear position, which would have sealed our society.
Restored for the celebrations of 2003, less than 9 months the Church of St. Seraphim of Sarov.About faith, hope and love
I'll tell you what our hope is. Have said that the biggest drawback we have today – it manifests itself in the economy and in science, and where I want is the dominance of officials. The only hope is that the society finally realizes that this can no longer be tolerated. We're with you all there, even the money is, which until recently was not. Minerals is, energy is. Skilled people in all countries of the world demand, they will gladly take it. We have you all there. And we love our country, believe in it. So we just have to develop quickly and well. For this purpose it is only necessary to include brains.
I think that pretty soon the society is aware of this and very seriously tweak the philosophy of the development of the country. In that sense I'm an incurable optimist.