No matter when and where they came from, but virtually every one of our people has some knowledge of first aid. Unfortunately, in most cases, this knowledge is a mess of stereotypes and rumors, and the application of this cereal in practice, not just useless, but also dangerous. For example, everyone knows that it is necessary to splint the fracture. And most imagine this bus as two or three sticks, ideally - shtaketiny from the fence with the remnants of the traditional painting. When there is a need to help, for some reason, it turns out that people are not happy when his broken arm, trying to straighten the leg and attach to a stick.
And all because it is necessary to fix the fracture in the position that is most comfortable for the victim. Of course this is usually bent. Like this. Did you know that? Hope so. And because of the listed below the top ten most common misconceptions stereotypes first aid laugh as on the long-known thing. Or think about it. Or remember. And best of all - find a good time and pass courses in first aid. Suddenly, God forbid, come in handy.
1. Sam dies, and save your comrade
This stereotype is tightly hammered into the heads of the older generation of films, books and simply the ideology of the Soviet era, desperate chant the heroism and self-sacrifice. No doubt - these qualities are important, valuable and sometimes indispensable. But in real life, on the street, in the city or in the countryside learned by rote adherence to the rules could cost the life of a hero and save.
A simple example - the car crashed into a pillar of power line. The driver sits inside the unconscious, talk to him is not terrible. And suddenly he rushes to the rescue of the hero. Reaches the car without seeing the wire, and again - a victim anymore. Next - another hero, then - a couple of ... and here we have a car with a driver alive, surrounded by a bunch of heroic bodies have not had time to call rescuers and "fast". Clearly, the hype in the press, meeting with posters "How long ?!" someone sued, and in the whole country entered a state of emergency. In short - a mess, and why? Because our heroes did not know one simple rule - first determine what threatens you, and only then - that threatens the victim, because if you something happens, help you can not. Assess the situation, call 01 and possibly refrain from extreme heroism. How would this may sound cynical, one corpse is always better than two.
2. Get any means
Continuing the theme of roads and accidents. You will not believe how prevalent in our country the following scenario: an ambulance and rescuers come to the scene of the accident and the victims have already recovered from the crumpled cars stacked in the shade and made to drink some water. This voluntary rescuers were pulling people out of cars at the arms and legs, and in addition to have his injuries caught up with a couple more absolutely rather offensive, like a broken spine deformation. So a man sat in the car, waiting for assistance, spices carefully dismantled this machine would put him on a stretcher and gave doctors. Six months in the hospital s back on its feet. And now there is. Now - a lifelong disability. And it does not specifically. All out of a desire to help. So - do not. It is not necessary to depict rescuers. Actions witness an accident are the following: to call for help, disconnect the battery emergency vehicle that is not of an accidental spark flared spilled gasoline, garden scene of an accident, the victim stop bleeding (if any) and before the arrival of doctors with a man ... just talk. Yes, psychological support, distraction, encouraging, joking after all. The wounded man must feel that the care. But to drag a person's hands and feet of the car can be in only one case - when the possible consequences of transport will be less than its absence. For example - when the car caught fire.
3. Tab to the collar
Remember this bike? The army first-aid kit is available pin, and she needed to pin the language of the unconscious man to his own collar - the fact that it (the language) is not the fuse and blocked airways. And it happened, so it was done. Good pictures - so here wake up from fainting, but with tongue out? Yes, in an unconscious state in a human language always sinks. Yes, it must be borne in mind and deal with it. But not in the same barbaric methods! Have you ever, by the way, a man trying to get out of his mouth language? No? Try it. You will discovery - it turns out to be soft, slippery and does not want to remain in the extended position. Yes, and it's unhygienic. To free up the airways of the sunken language, simply turn the human side. All - the airway open. So, by the way, it is recommended to arrive with all the familiar and unfamiliar drunks sleeping on the street. I put it to one side - and nothing, ave. But if he fell asleep lying on his back, then his life is threatened just two dangers: suffocation from the tongue and choke vomit. And if one side for some reason, it is impossible (for example - suspected spinal injury in which all once again to move the person is dangerous) just zaprokinte his head back. It's enough.
4. Harness around the neck
By the way, this is quite possible. Harness around the neck is applied, but not just so, and by hand. But it's not about that. With harness our people's attitude timid and gentle. He is in every medicine cabinet, and therefore for any severe bleeding citizens rush zhgutovat. Some without even remember that summer harness can be applied for two hours, and in the winter one. And know that the venous blood color darker than arterial. That's only part of it turns out that is not the most life-threatening deep cut somehow harness, so much so that on arrival at the hospital it turns out - bloodless limb can not be saved. Remember - the wiring is only applicable to stop arterial bleeding. How to distinguish it? Well, certainly not by the color of blood. Firstly, shades of red, and so it is not always differences, and here a stressful situation. It is easy to make a mistake. However, it is arterial bleeding, you will learn easily. If we translate our typical pressure of 120 over 80 in the atmosphere, you get somewhere 1, 4. That is almost half. Now imagine that out of a narrow tube through a small hole under the pressure of the atmosphere enters the half-yes. I figured what the fountain would be? That's right. It is for the pressure and the height of the fountain of blood unmistakably recognized arterial bleeding. And here we must not tarry, life goes out of a person by the second. So do not look for a rope or harness, remove his belt. Just quickly clamped a finger. Where? In places where the artery closest to the body surface and less covered - groin approach mouse. Your task - to press the artery, wait stop the bleeding, and then priladit to place a tourniquet. And quickly to the hospital. By the way, the wiring is applied to clothes, so it is visible. Note with tourniquet time to write a better marker of ... on the forehead of the victim. So more likely that the information will not be lost, and the poor guy probably forgive you this body art.
But venous bleeding - even very abundant - it is better to stop a tight pressure bandage. It does not matter if it is completely saturated with blood - put another layer on top. This is among other things allows the doctor to estimate the thickness bandages severity of blood loss.
5. Burn smazhem oil
We imagine, for 80% of water, which, among other properties, has also thermal capacity. So what we burn, given this data? A certain amount of heat reaches the skin and its surface goes deeper into the tissues of the body that are readily accumulate inherited them joules. What tells us the banal logic? To remove joules back and stop the overheating, it is necessary to cool the burn. After all, right? And just like. Pour cold water on the burn and wait. But here we are waiting for, as it turns out, is not enough. As a rule - or to mitigate the pain of loss, ie less than a minute. During this time, only a fraction of joules comes out, the rest sitting, hiding, waiting for developments. How can we develop an event? Gusto smear the place burn panthenol, cream, yogurt or - Babkin recipe - butter with salt. What's happening? Above the place where tissue still walk notorious Joules, create a tight cushion substance that covers their release. As a result - burn only compounded. But if you have enough patience to stand still under the water for 10-15 minutes, it would be quite another matter. And panthenol, and other funds began to work with a damaged area of skin, from under which all the heat is already displayed.
6. Rub his ears
Russia - a cold place, so that one of the threats for the Russian people - frostbite. Faced with him almost all - ears and nose are white, lose sensitivity, but when rubbed by hand or snow, quickly turn red, and then comes pain. Why so painful that? Yes, because our body (forgive the simplification) - a system of ducts and provodochki where the first - the blood vessels, and the second - the nerve endings. In the cold freeze tubes, blood does not circulate on them (hence the white color), provodochki dubeyut and it all becomes brittle. And we begin to pound. And Cruz Loma melenkie provodochki-tube, causing severe damage to the body. Even a bottle of beer, frozen in the freezer, the sudden transfer to heat may explode. And delicate flasks ... So - do not rub. It is necessary to slowly warm. Cool or lukewarm water. Then the effects of frostbite are not so bad, and the pain in the back of sensitivity is not so strong.
Remember how it happened at a high temperature - very hot and chilly. The whole body is shaking, I want to go to a ball under the warm, warm blanket and keep warm ... And it went, and even then warmed, and did not know what to warm in such a situation is not just bad, and deadly. It's very simple - high fever (more than 38) indicates the temperature of only one. The fact that the temperature continues to rise and the body overheats. He needs cooling, and we are instead wrapped up warmly, covering blankets, heaters obkladyvayut. As a result - the personal thermos, in which the body heats up more and more. In the saddest cases, the temperature flies the mark of 41, and after that were irreversible processes leading to death. It is not often, but it happens. So remember - at a high temperature and chills do not need to be wrapped up. It is necessary to cool cool bath, a light blanket, wet wiping ... anything, just to give the body a chance to dump excess heat. Be sure - because the high temperature will be transferred and will be much easier.
8. Bank with potassium permanganate
So. Did the parents that the crystals of manganese is completely dissolved in water at a temperature of only 70 degrees? Did they know that such a solution is not bodyazhit pointless (not necessarily drinking antiseptics to immediately give them back), but also dangerous, since undissolved crystal of manganese can make some of the gastric mucosa in a heap of troubles? Do not waste time and chemicals - to clean the stomach enough to drink 3-5 glasses of plain warm water and induce vomiting.
The man choked, poor fellow, and coughs so that grieves. What do the others? Of course, it helps him - knocking on the back. But why do they do it? From a scientific point of view, such attacks even more irritating to the place where the foreign body from choking enhanced cough reflex and caught the wrong way he takes off a piece. Now imagine the drain pipe. Throw back the cat (obviously, supposedly, we're not sadists any) and start banging on a pipe with a stick (virtually). What do you think, what is the likelihood that the cat will jump out from the top of the pipe? So it is with our piece - in ninety-nine cases a person cleared his throat. But in one piece will fall deeper into the respiratory system with all its consequences - the need for intervention of a doctor to death by respiratory failure. So - do not knock. Even if they asked. It is much easier and safer to calm the man and ask him to do a few slow, very slow breaths and blow. As you exhale, bend forward slightly better - something to our downspout moved from a vertical position to a horizontal. Three or four such breaths - and coughing increase. The piece will fly by itself, simply and safely.
10. Pry his teeth
This is probably the most common and the most legendary misleading, in that quite seriously believed by millions of Russians. This unshakable confidence that a person who has had an attack of epilepsy, it is necessary to unclench your teeth and insert between them anything. Beauty! And inserted because - try, at least. A epileptics then came to himself, was surprised to realize that they have clogged the mouth of the plastic pens izgryzennoy (at best) or fragments of their own teeth (at worst). So: do not! Do not shove a man in the mouth horrible, and so it is unsweetened. It makes matters worse. After all, the well-wishers justify such actions? The fact that a person in a fit can bite his tongue. Three times "Ha!" So you know - during an attack all human muscles are in good shape. Including language, which among other things is also a muscle. He was tense and therefore does not fall out of his mouth and will not fall between the teeth. High - will will bite the tip. Blood at the same time a little bit, but, to mix with the saliva foam, it creates the appearance of unprecedented destruction - and fueled by myths about languages bitten off. In general, you do not meddle with their knives, forks, spoons. If you really want to help, kneel at the head of the epileptic and try to hold her head to avoid hitting the ground. Such attacks are much more dangerous than the hypothetical bitten tongue. When the active phase of the attack will take place - convulsions run out - gently turn the person to one side as he came the second phase - a dream. It can not last, but still in such a state because the muscles are relaxed, and the possibility of suffocation from the tongue.
Such are the harsh realities of our insecure life. It is advisable very well learn them yourself, it's not for nothing that the chief medical law is: "Do no harm!" And a good idea to observe the laws - will be healthier.
Author: Ilya Boyko, lifeguard