What an incredible ability to eat a man.
People who feel the taste is much more accurate than the rest of the population, called superdegustatorami. The reason is the presence of an additional build-up mushroom (growths on the tongue in the shape of mushrooms, which are covered with extra taste buds) - that's why these people have a strong reaction to the taste. Of the five basic tastes: sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and so-called "meat flavor" superdegustatory feel bitterness most prominent. At first, scientists have noticed that some people feel different already known in taste products. Arthur Fox, a chemist at the US chemical company DuPont, conducted experiments on taste perception feniltiokarbomida (RTS). When he gave to try this stuff tastes, some people may experience its bitterness, while others do not. This difference is due to genetics people. (A variation of this test - now one of the most common genetic tests). Of the 70% of people who may feel PTC, two thirds rated as average, and only one-third (about 25% of the population) is superdegustatorami.
Superdegustatory do not like certain foods, particularly bitter, such as Brussels sprouts, cabbage ordinary, coffee and grapefruit juice. Women, Asians, Africans, and more likely to be superdegustatorami, because they have a high probability of an increased number of mushroom-shaped growths.
People with absolute pitch can identify and reproduce the tone. This is not just an improved ability to hear, but the ability to mentally categorize sounds, remembering their categories. Examples demonstrating absolute pitch can be the identification of everyday noises (eg horns, sirens, the sound of the engine), the opportunity to sing a note without original song called chords. Take any example of this list is an indication that a person remembers the frequency of each tone and can call it (for example, 'C #', or 'C sharp'). Opinions on the bill, whether absolute pitch ability of genetic or not, are constantly changing.
Estimates of the population having absolute pitch range from 3% (in the US) to 8% (in Europe). In music conservatories in Japan approximately 70% of musicians have absolute pitch. Perhaps so great process because absolute pitch is more common among people who grew up in an environment with a tonal language (Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese). Absolute pitch is also more common in those people who are born blind, have William's Syndrome or autism suffer.
Svetovospriyatie - ability to visible light of four different sources. An example of this in the animal kingdom - zebra fish that could see the light of red, green, blue and ultraviolet range of the light spectrum. True svetovospriyatie in humans is much rarer, however, according to Wikipedia, it has been reported two cases of this phenomenon.
Ordinary people have three types of receptors that recognize the light in the red, green and blue range of the light spectrum. Each receptor can recognize about 100 shades of color, and our brain tries to mix them up, change their brightness, so that we can observe at least part of the 1 million different colors that painted our world. True svetovospriyatie theoretically allows to perceive 100 million colors.
As superdegustatsiya, svetovospriyatie more common in women. I wonder what color blindness occurs in men more often than women, and can be inherited from a woman with svetovospriyatiem.
Echolocation - is what helps bats navigate in the dark forests - they emit a sound, waiting for the echo, and use sound in the ears of returning them to determine where the object is. Surprisingly, people are also capable of echolocation. She is likely to have access to blind people, because the whole process is time consuming and a strong sensitivity to sound reflection.
To use echolocation, a person actively creates noise (for example, clicking the tongue), and thanks to echo understands how objects are arranged around it. People who are capable of it, can determine where the object is located and what size it is. Since a person can not make or hear the sound at high frequencies, which are used bats and dolphins, he will be able to locate only large objects, unlike animals ekolokatorov.
Here are the names of people who are capable of ekolokatsii: James Holman, Daniel Kish, and Ben Underwood. Perhaps the most well-lit is the story of Ben Underwood, who lost both eyes at the age of three years.
In the Iliad, Homer described a creature having body parts from different animals - a chimera. It is from the name of a mythological monster came to the name of one of the genetic phenomena - chimerism. Genetic chimerism or tetragametizm manifest in humans and animals, in cases where two fertilized eggs or embryos are joined together in the early stages of pregnancy. Each zygote carries a copy of the DNA of one of the parents, which means that two different genetic materials. When they merge, the contents of cells retains its genetic character and the resulting embryo becomes a mixture of both. Essentially, a human chimera - own twin.
Chimerism in humans is very rare. Wikipedia says that only 40 known cases. DNA analysis is often used to determine whether the person biologically with his parents or children, but it can and uncover cases of chimerism when DNA results show that children are not biologically related to their mothers - because the child inherited a different DNA profile. This happened in the case of Lydia Fairchild: DNA tests of her and her children have forced the state to think that she was not their mother.
The immune system of people born with chimerism make them tolerant to both genetically distinct types of cells in the body. This means that among the people at the "chimeras" can be a lot more potential organ donors.
Imagine that each digit and the letter you associate with a particular color, or a word makes you a certain sense of taste. This is - the two forms of a neurological disorder, called Synaesthesia. Synesthesia - the excitement is when one sensor entails an involuntary reaction of other sensors.
Synesthesia is most often genetic features manifested in connection letters or numbers with certain colors.
Although Synesthesia - a neurological disorder, it does not make a person an invalid, because it does not affect his ability. Most people do not even know that the events of their lives evoke sensory responses greater than that of others. Basically, those who have Synesthesia not believe that it has a negative impact on their lives.
Data on the number of people with synesthesia strongly vary a lot, from 1 in 20 to 1 in 20 000. Research 2005 - 2006 were conducted with random people and found that about 1 in 23 people have Synaesthesia. Examples of people with synesthesia: the author Vladimir Nabokov, composer Olivier Messiaen, and scientist Richard Feynman. Daniel Tammet, who is mentioned in the next section of this list is also subject to synesthesia.
The most extraordinary group of experts who are able to perform complex calculations in his mind - people with autism ... While many trained scientists (mostly mathematicians, writers and linguists) can make huge calculations in his head, the ability of untrained autistic people is the most interesting . Most of them are born with savant syndrome (only about 50% of people with the syndrome are also autistic scientist), which is still poorly understood, much less this syndrome develops throughout life, usually due to head injury.
In total there are fewer than 100 recognized by the world's foremost scholars and scientists with autism who can use mental methods of calculation. A recent study found that one of the factors that allows mental calculators to solve math problem much faster than the average person, is that blood flow to part of the brain responsible for mathematical calculations, such people exceeds the rate of six or seven times.
Examples of people with extraordinary calculation skills: Daniel McCartney, Salo Finkelstein, and Alexander Aitken. Daniel Tammet - one of the few who was also autistic.
When a person has a photographic memory - it is called a living memory. This ability to recall sounds, images, or objects with extreme accuracy. His living memory showed Akira Haraguchi, who could remember the first 100,000 digits of pi. Figures Vilchira Stephen (who was also autistic) are also an example of the living memory - in these figures is depicted his stay in Rome. Raymond Babbit in the movie "Rain Man", also has a living memory and, among other things, he can recall about 12,000 books from memory.
Is there a true photographic memory, is still a controversial issue, but recognized that the ability to live the memory evenly distributed between men and women. Living memory is also impossible to get through practice.
There is only one known case of a person having immortal cells (cells that can divide indefinitely outside of the human body), and that a woman named Henrietta Lacks. In 1951, at the 31-year-old Henrietta Lacks was diagnosed with cervical cancer, and after a year of serious illness she died. Unknown to her and her family a surgeon took a tissue sample of the tumor it (without getting the informed consent of relatives), which was transferred to Dr. George Ki. Scholarships for university laboratory tissue culture them. Johns Hopkins breeding Henrietta tissue sample into an endless cell line - a line Hela. Cells from the tumor Lax was active form of the enzyme, which is spreading rapidly wrong. On the day of the death of Henrietta Lacks Dr. Guy announced to the world that a new age has begun in the medical issledovanii- one that could provide cancer treatment.
Hela cells are now very common in laboratories. For today Hela cells alive even more than during the life of Henrietta Lacks - they outweigh its physical mass many times. Unfortunately, she will never know about a very valuable contribution to the science that made her cells. I highly recommend reading the story to learn more about the life of Henrietta Lacks and the effects of her cancer.
Hela cells were used in 1954, Jonas Salk to develop a treatment for polio. Since then, they have been used in cancer research, AIDS, the effects of radiation and toxic substances and by the way, also for cloning.