When the Great Depression, the US president was a Republican Herbert Hoover (1874-1964). Notorious for his statement in March 1930 that the US "the worst is over" and the economy will recover by itself. The worst, however, had just started, and it lasted until the Second World War.
People who have lost their homes, often living in the so-called "Guvervilyah" or shanty towns of which have been named in honor of President Herbert Hoover. Also in the course were the expression "Hoover Chowder" (food, issued in soup kitchens), "Hoover blanket" (newspapers, which served as a blanket), "guverovy pig" (jackrabbit who ate) and "Hoover carts" ( broken horse-drawn vehicles).
Chicago gangster Al Capone (1899-1947) during the Great Depression in one of his periodic attempts to establish communication with the public has opened a soup kitchen. For millions of people are dining is the only power source.
Exchange collapse on Wall Street in 1929 was one of the main causes of the Great Depression. "Black Thursday", "Black Monday" and "Black Tuesday" - all of these things right to use when describing the collapse, as originally collapse occurred in a few days, and Tuesday was the most devastating.
In "Black Tuesday" October 29, 1929 Exchange lost $ 14 billion, so the total loss for the week amounted to an unprecedented $ 30 billion. The amount was ten times more than the annual federal budget and far exceed the money spent US during World War II. $ 30 billion of that time would be equal to today's 377, 587, 032, 770.41 dollars.
After the first stock market crash on the New York financial district was a wave of suicides. It was said that one of the hotel employees have even begun to ask new guests, the purposes for which they rent a room: to sleep or jump.
One American sheep farm owner realized that not benefit from the sale of their sheep during the Depression. Instead of looking like his 3000 sheep are dying of hunger, he cut their throats and threw into the canyon.
In the 1930s women's fashion a new image. In response to the economic crisis the designers have created a more accessible style with a long skirt, a thin waist, low heels and less makeup. Accessories acquired special importance, since they create the impression of a "new" way without having to buy a new dress.
During the most difficult years of the Depression (1933-1934) the overall unemployment rate was 25% (1 of 4), while another 25% have undergone a reduction in wages or working part-time. Gross domestic product fell by almost 50%. It was not until 1941, when World War II was in full swing, the unemployment rate is officially dropped to 10%.
Today, every average American family with two breadwinner, so that the unemployment rate even 25% as it was during the Great Depression, it may not mean the same, which means in the 1930s.
Scientists estimate that about 50% of the children during the depression did not get enough food, medical care or were deprived of shelter. Many suffered from rickets.
Some destitute during the Depression traveled on the roofs of railway cars, since they did not have money for the trip. Among the celebrities who traveled thus can be called William O. Douglas (1898-1980), a member of the US Supreme Court from 1939 to 1975; novelist Louis L'Amour (1908-1988); and folk singer Woody Guthrie (1912-1967). Some scholars argue that more than 50,000 people were injured or killed while jumping on the train.
During the Depression gained extraordinary popularity board game Monopoly, which first appeared in 1935. The reason for this probably was an opportunity to get rich players - at least in their imagination.
Cartoon "The Three Little Pigs" production of Walt Disney, released in theaters May 27, 1933, was considered symbolic of the Great Depression: Depression embodied wolf and the three little pigs were average citizens who, working together, gradually succeeded.
During the Great Depression to the movies every week there were a record number of Americans - 60-80 million people. One of the biggest blockbusters was "King Kong" Merian C. Cooper, taken in 1933. Also had great popularity of such films as "The Wizard of Oz" (1939) and "Gone With the Wind" (1939).
"Chain letters," apparently first appeared in 1935 as part of the scheme, "get rich quick". The source of these letters is unknown, but they have become so popular that postal employees across the country had to hire additional labor.
The hardest thing during the Great Depression had African Americans, they often fall under the first reduction.
In the period between 1930 and 1935 went bankrupt or were sold under the hammer of about 750,000 farms.
Since many businesses and farms in the Great Depression were closed, an alarming number of Americans embarked on a criminal path, for example, Bruno Hauptmann, who kidnapped and killed the son of the hero 20timesyachnogo aviation Charles Lindbergh; John Dillinger, a kind of Robin Hood of the time; Lester M. Gillis ("The Kid" Nelson). Very "popular" were "Machine Gun" Kelly; "Pretty Boy" Floyd; Ma Barker and her sons; famous Bonnie and Clyde, which actually despised other bandits Midwest, believes that they have lowered the standards of the profession.
During the Great Depression was completed some famous buildings, including the Empire State Building and the bridge "Golden Gate", and it provided earnings of many of the unemployed.
With the spread of news about the stock market crash, customers rushed to their banks to withdraw money from the accounts, thereby provoking the disastrous "bank runs". Nobel laureate in economics Milton Friedman believes that in itself falling market 1930 was not the cause of depression is likely, the reason was the collapse of the banking system during the wave of public panic 1930-1933 period.