Stem cell research, printed in 3D bodies and genetically modified viruses - we live in a world that our ancestors could not even imagine. We forgot to what monstrous proportions swelled small by today's standards, the problems before the invention of anesthesia. Yes, and the type of medical instruments themselves could come to dread.
In essence, this is a chain saw, but it was designed for cutting of trees is not. Initially, this tool invented by Bernard Heine about 1830, was used in trepanation, and later he began to use different variations with amputation and even dental surgery.
Tool for stretching the urethra
When the urethra is narrowed so that the patient man could not normally write, doctors resorted to the help of this tool. He was introduced into the urethra through the tip of the penis to the problem areas.
Then the screw was rotated on the handle to separate the two elements, and the channel extend as far as possible, often tearing the tissue. And pouring out the blood was considered a good sign.
Simulator for dentists
This aluminum design was used in the 1930s to train future dentists. Apparently, it was on top of a rubber coating that mimics the human head, but it was lost. In such simulators are usually inserted teeth, torn corpses.
Incubators for lice
This is not a medical instrument, but we have included this piece in our list, as it helped to create a vaccine and save many lives.
During the wars of the disease claim more lives than actually fighting. Typhus epidemic could mow the whole army, not to mention the poor urban areas, where large numbers of people huddled in small rooms and unsanitary conditions prevailed.
The disease is transferred lice, from which there was no escape until the 20-ies of the last century, when Professor Rudolf Wagle invented a method for obtaining an effective vaccine. Lice specially grown, feeding on the blood of people who were called "breadwinners" - for this cell parasites attached to the legs or hips. Adult lice infested, then cut and created a vaccine.
Guillotine for tonsils
Before the advent of antibiotics, any, the most innocent in our opinion infection could lead to tragic consequences. In order to cure tonsillitis and avoid associated complications such as peritonsillar abscess (or purulent tonsillitis), and was invented by this device.
Dr. pierced with a fork and cut tonsil guillotine blade. This device proved a great relief for doctors, since before they were forced to go into the patient's mouth with your fingers, and often suffered from bites.
The most popular method of hemorrhoid treatment was to remove the damaged areas. This tool is squeezed external hemorrhoid to stop the blood flow. Damaged tissue as a result were white and die. Internal hemorrhoids first fished with special hooks, and then either burned or cut with scissors.
Bladder stones have always been a common problem, especially among poor families in the diet included an insufficient number of protein.
In these cases, doctors usually made perineal incision to reach the bladder. And then comes the turn of lithotomy. The instrument was equipped with two contiguous blades that appeared at the right time of the guide sheath, notched and expand the base of the bladder. The surgeon then took forceps and tried to pull the stones that when viewed groped through the wall of the rectum.
Not wanting to prolong the torment of his patients in the pre-anasteziynuyu era, doctors tried to keep within five minutes.
Loop to remove the tissue
For removal of hemorrhoids and other tumors - tumors, polyps, cysts, etc., used here is such a tool. Sometimes a loop on the end was equipped with sharp teeth, sometimes it was an ordinary wire, the main purpose of which was not so much to cut, how to block blood flow. Once the loop is provided on the basis of tumor, the doctor began to tighten the screw, tightening it all the more. Similar tools used for veterinarians castration of cattle.
Since oral hygiene was at the most primitive level, and about the true causes of tooth decay and gum disease people have a vague idea, toothache our ancestors suffered quite often. Hoping to somehow relieve it, and fled to the doctor, or, at worst, a local barber.
Before the invention of the early 18th century dental key, removing teeth is by using brute force. And if during the operation broke a tooth, the doctor removed the root together with a piece of gum using a bone chisel.
Dental key allows you to capture and hold the aching tooth, and then, swinging and twisting, pull it out of the gums - all, of course, without anesthesia. It is not surprising that people tried to endure the toothache until recently.