Like millions of years ago, our planet every day is a bizarre ballet of Life and Death, without stopping its motion for a second. Each time, millions of beings are using all their evolutionary adaptations developed over the centuries just to survive until the next sunrise. Each death weakens species as a whole. Every mortal act protects and warns other members of the species, and kept alive the strongest and fittest.
But sometimes death takes bizarre forms when getting into the act different neurotoxins. The neurotoxin - a chemical compound which acts strongly on the nervous tissue. If the animal world would have acted the principles of the Geneva Agreement, neurotoxins would be prohibited. These poisons are surprisingly perfect, but that is terrible and horrible death which is caused by them.
Each poison has a fancy scientific name, and indicate that we, together with the effects that it causes.
Poison Spider Sydney: "Exploding Light»
Many types of neurotoxins, "turn off" the nervous system, but atrakotoksin works with precision but on the contrary. It stimulates the nervous system, so that it begins to run at maximum capacity. Ultimately, the most terrible consequences of their falling into the body is that the incredibly increased blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation, resulting in lung alveoli just explode, and the man drowned while on solid ground.
And the worst thing. The poison that is completely safe for all living beings, and even mammals. But it is perfectly valid for primates. Of all living things, from which should defend the wicked spider, he chose a man. Us. Well, as the monkeys, but mainly us.
This particular neurotoxin found in Sydney spider that was seen only in Sydney, Australia. And it's the most dangerous man around the globe since its poison can easily kill you in just 15 minutes. To the great joy, about 30 years ago, it was designed by the antitoxin, and for the past three decades, not a single documented case with a fatal outcome. However, it is a reason not to break the Australian visit Sydney, as there are a considerable chance of meet this nice spider.
The venom of scorpions: the deadly convulsions
Dortoksin found in the southern African Spitting scorpion, and it is probably one of the worst poisons, from which you could die. But do not relax, there is still a lot to discover and choose a way to die early.
So. When the researchers tested the toxin in mice, it has led to convulsions, seizures and hyperactivity that does not end, and for 30 seconds after the death of the mouse. The worst thing is that it took some 20 nanograms (!) To kill a large animal.
Scorpion venom spitting specific in that it is actually represented by three different toxins. And the scorpion, depending on the victim can choose the type of poison. Spitting scorpion named because directly after the bite to it "spits out" a certain amount of venom towards the goal.
Scientists believe that in this way preserves the strongest scorpion toxin that requires a lot of energy for its synthesis. This is a small portion of the toxin is not so large predator slaughter may just scare, but directly small mammals (prey scorpion) killed on the spot, allowing the scorpion to reserve the most powerful weapon in reserve.
Psychedelic poison frogs
Have you ever seen movies where people licking a toad, began to conduct themselves inappropriately? By the way, it's real, and so acts bufotoxin consisting of a cocktail of chemicals found in the bodies of certain frogs. Among other alkaloid poison toad Bufo contain 5-MeO-DMT, psychoactive substance, psilocybin and mescaline like, which together are known as the "Breakfast of God." Thus, some of the effects reported by those who have tried mescaline and similar products, just due to the state of altered consciousness, which occurs under the action of the toxin.
The poison that is released through the gland on the back of the body of toads Bufo is simply a defense mechanism. You can laugh for a long time, but this toxin is much more effective than many of the deadly poisons. Unlike neurotoxins that kill the victim, he has firmly property crash in memory of a predator, hinting that these frogs do not eat.
Imagine that you are a predator who decided to dine a toad. Imagine the unfortunate predators that after the attack on the toad thrown three hours of our universe! How you will feel after this animal? However, if the animal was small, and a portion of the toxin, which frightened toad allocated was great predator may well perish.
Poisons caterpillars hemorrhagic action
Research Lon (Lonomia obliqua) is still underway. Despite the fact that the first case of poisoning with this caterpillar was recorded two decades ago, since only officially her fault that the world has left about 500 people. If you think it's a little, just know that the aforementioned Spider Sydney over the past 100 years has gone to the grave, only 13 people.
Researchers still do not know the composition of this diabolical cocktail, but perfectly studied the effects of the poison getting into the human body. One woman who had been stung by a caterpillar, died of intracranial hemorrhage. In fact, her skull was filled with blood. There are many similar cases, because of what began to form among scientists a definite opinion about the nature of this poison. Now most of the scientific world suggests that the poison acts on prothrombin, not allowing blood to clot. In fact, in this case should not be talking about a neurotoxin and a hemotoxin. As a result, the blood loses its ability to clot becomes thinner, and the person could die from the slightest chance.
In other words, as a result of the incredible power of your internal organs hyperemia may just burst.
Asphyxia: Greetings from the Brazilian Wandering Spider
To be honest, we have already developed a very special view of the spider. Spiders - one of the most cold-blooded killers in the animal world, and if they have created a society based on the ability to kill the Brazilian wandering spider would be their king. One of the main components of the venom of the Brazilian wandering spider - a neurotoxin called PhTx3.
This effect is called preapizm, and is caused by a certain element of the neurotoxin called Tx2-6. From an evolutionary point of view, this spider is a sophisticated sadist. It does not kill attacked him but makes him incapable of procreation.
PhTx3 has a far more dangerous effect. It can block the calcium channels in the muscle synapse due to muscles which can not be reduced. Once the effect is applied to the diaphragm, you are finished. Simply put, you just suffocate.
When you think about the animals, which can cause a horrible death, the snails are not usually the leaders of your "Top 10". And for good reason.
Cone snail is a killer. A complex group of neurotoxins used cone snail to kill prey, known as conotoxin, and is one of the strongest toxins in the world. The reason that the cones produce a potent toxin that they need to kill their prey as quickly as possible. After all, they - predators, but predators are slow. Cones fired into the victim kind of harpoon, which often makes victims of people who like to collect shells.
The danger lies in the fact that many species of cone, and every kind of snails is toxic in varying degrees. Some bee sting is no more dangerous, whereas the small and innocuous-looking species of cone can easily kill an adult. Toxins cones are unique not only for its strength but also the incredible variety. Just imagine the following: all are about 100 species of these lovely snails. Each subtype may have up to 500 different types of poison, as a result gives 50 thousand variants lethal toxin! Such a number is simply impossible to develop an antidote. The complexity and the fact that each such toxin acts differently. For example, one of its species has an analgesic effect. Only by starting to die, you will understand how serious it's only you that's not going to help.
Heart attacks from frogs
There is a good chance that you are familiar with the amazing frogs mucus that lubricates the Amazon Indians tips of their arrows. Some of them are so poisonous that if there is the slightest scratch on exposed skin, which contacted the frog, you can die. But the most surprising is not the point. Surprisingly, as a frog manages to synthesize the batrachotoxin, which is so dangerous poison.
In most cases, the glands that are responsible for producing the toxin is present in every poisonous creature on the planet. They work as a self-contained factory, synthesising the toxin as a result of complex chemical processes. At the same frog toxins it depends on what they eat. The body of the frog is designed so that they store up the toxin, which is supplied to them with food as our body stores fat or carbohydrates. And therein lies the uniqueness of these amazing creatures. They can be deadly, and can be completely exposed.
Professional scientists engaged in the study of amphibians, are well aware that these frogs being grown in captivity, it is harmless. Even the frogs, who were caught in the wild, after a period of detention in captivity on a simple diet completely lose their toxic properties. But if a frog to release into the wild on Wednesday, after a while, it will again become poisonous.
And it's good news for those fans terrariums that like to keep these creatures in captivity. Wild as a frog can contain up to 13,000 micrograms of toxin, while the killing of one man need only 130 mcg.
Medusa Irukandj is one of the most common deadly jellyfish of the World Ocean. These jellyfish are responsible for at least 70 confirmed deaths. They live off the coast of Australia, and are so small that many people, even if it stung, so did not notice. People who happily escaped, know that their bite, but from a medical worker.
The sting of the jellyfish (by the way, it is no more than the nail of the little finger of the child) contains strong poison so that he can kill a healthy adult male. Its strength venom so great exactly the same as that ulitok0konusov, reason. They are too slow to chase the wounded prey, and therefore require the most effective means of her murder. However, for this reason, and sea snakes are hundreds of times more poisonous than any of their earthly counterparts.
Here there is only one small unpleasant nuance. Shrimp or small fish did die instantly, whereas a person before death will experience a whole bunch of painful sensations. Wikipedia says on this score: "painful muscle spasms, severe pain in the back and kidneys, burning sensation of the hands and face, headaches, nausea, restlessness, sweating, vomiting, increased heart rate and blood pressure, as well as a sense of impending doom." < br />
The sense of impending doom ... agree that it is just awful. Not only suffering, but also to know when it is sure to die ...
If you long to grovel on the subject of why suddenly become poisonous bird, you can immediately tell that she gets the poison from the same place it is produced above the frog. So, why we list it again? First of all, homobatrahotoksin - a neurotoxin found in the two-color pitohu, which can reasonably be called the "devil bird". Bicolor pitohu - first discovered poisonous bird, although since its opening have been found several of its varieties.
Yes, it's really weird. Remember how we said that poisonous frogs get their toxins from food? Well, two color pitohu lives in Papua New Guinea, about 10,000 miles across the Pacific Ocean from Central and South America (the main habitat of poisonous frogs). But despite this, the bird was able to develop the exact same capacity for accumulation of the toxin (extremely rare), relating to batrachotoxin.
But it is all the more strange when you consider that their diets are quite different! And suppose that develop exactly the same storage capacity quite unique species, and even in animals very different classes and families? Nevertheless, it is really so.
Deadly delicacy: fish Fugu
Puffer fish is widely known throughout the world. And she got famous not for his amazing ability to swell like a balloon being pulled out of the water, but for the amazing sushi that you can easily send to the forefathers. The toxin, which is responsible for this mess, called tetradotoksinom. The name was taken from the Latin name of this fish.
And we return to the problem of the origin of the poison in the body of the animal. The same neurotoxin that is 100 times stronger than the infamous cyanide found in the annular blue octopus, several species of newts, and in many sea snails. So this is actually a toxin produced by bacteria that have developed a symbiotic relationship with all these different marine animals. For various reasons, these animals have evolved to be able to coexist with the bacteria in a mutually beneficial relationship.
Simply put, the bacteria are the main weapons factories. Some animals use these symbionts to protect, and some, on the contrary, to attack. However, in this case the fish does not use these Fugu cohabitants audio for audio another. It just so happens that they have developed a mutually beneficial symbiosis, through which a few dozen people a year are killed by testing the forbidden foods.