The Book of General Ignorance. Part 2 (30 pics)

The second part of the errors in the book Stephen Fry.
Part 1.

In addition to mercury, liquid at room temperature can also be gallium, cesium and francium. Since all of these very dense liquid (metals all), bricks, horseshoe and cannonballs theoretically will have to swim.
Gallium (Ga) was discovered in 1875 by French chemist by the name of Lecoq de Boisbaudran. All, of course, believed that the name of the new element inspired by purely patriotic reasons, but in fact the word gallus in Latin and "gal" ("French"), and "Rooster" - the same as the «Lecoq» (« Lecoq "). Gallium is the first chemical element that confirmed the predicted Dmitry Mendeleyev periodic table. Because of the unique electronic properties of gallium mainly used in silicon chips. It is also used in CD players, as a mixture with gallium arsenic transforms electric current into the laser beam, which "reads" the information from the disc surface.
The most notable area of ​​application of cesium (Cs) - atomic clock. Where cesium is used to determine the atomic seconds. On contact with water, cesium is extremely intense blast. The word "Cs" means "sky-blue" - because of the bright blue lines in its spectrum. This phenomenon was first observed in 1860 by German scientist Robert Bunsen. Bunsen used a spectroscope, who invented together with Gustav Kirchhoff - man, proved that signals over telegraph wires pass the speed of light.
Frances (Fr) - one of the rare chemical elements, according to scientists on Earth, he is present in all of thirty grams. This is due to the fact that France is so radioactive that instantly dissolves, turning into other more stable elements. In general, the liquid metal, but not for long - a maximum of a couple of seconds. Frances was isolated in 1939 Marguerite Perret, who worked at the Institute Curie in Paris. He was the last element to be discovered in nature.
All of these chemicals are liquids at extremely low temperatures for metals because electrons in their atoms are arranged such that they are extremely difficult to approach each other and form a lattice.
Each atom is floating quite freely, not being attracted to the neighbors - a hair's breadth as well as in other body fluids.

Mission St. Bernard - a purely sober (not to mention the fact that the person giving the brandy with hypothermia - a terrible mistake), but the idea of ​​tourists loved it, and because St. Bernards always pose a barrel, firmly attached to the collar.
Before these cute four-legged rescuers began to work, they actively used the shelter of the monks of St. Bernard Pass on the Great in the Alps - a mountain route connecting Switzerland and Italy. Dogs dragged on themselves provisions - large size and docile nature makes them perfect pack animals.
The idea of ​​the notorious barrel visited the young English artist, Sir Edwin Lendsira (1802-1873), who enjoyed the favor of the Queen Victoria. Lendsir was known for his landscapes and depictions of animals, but most of all he was famous painting "Monarch of the Glen" and sculptures of lions at the foot of Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square.
In 1831 Lendsir wrote canvas titled "Alpine Mastiffs bring to life a lost traveler," depicts two St. Bernards, one of whose neck hangs a barrel of brandy - that detail the artist added a "for fun." Since then, the label hung on all St. Bernards. Lendsiru also credited with popularizing the name of this breed - the "Saint Bernard" (instead of "alpine mastiff»).
Originally the breed was called "Barry" - distorted by the German Baren, «Bears." One of the first rescuers known as "Barry Great": the period from 1800 to 1814 the famous St. Bernard rescued forty people, but unfortunately, died at the hands of forty-one, who mistook him for a wolf.
After the death of Barry made a scarecrow, and today it proudly on display at the Natural History Museum in Berne. In honor of the greatest of rescuers best puppy-boy in each new litter at St. Bernard named Barry certainly.
Sometimes the sacred duty to ensure that the suffering and the blood has a table for shelter occupation is quite troublesome. So, one evening in 1708 his brother Vincent Kamo had once fed 400 travelers. To save labor, he fashioned like a large squirrel cage device attached to the skewer. Inside the wheel, rotating skewer with meat, one of the charity rysil St. Bernards.
According to some reports, since 1800 more than 2,500 dogs rescued travelers; however, no one - in the last fifty years. As a result, the monks decided to sell four-legged friends, replacing them with helicopters.


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