It's about the biggest minerals - diamonds, rubies, and others.
Not only natural, but also grown.
Let's start with the most popular, but in the end you will see rare minerals, which perhaps you have never heard of.
September 28, 2001 in London, one of the largest world auctions Christie's for $ 2, 2 million was sold to one of the largest emeralds - the famous "Mogul».
On the sides of this precious stone weighing 217 carats 8 and 10 cm high five lines engraved Muslim prayers and oriental pattern in the form of flowers. On the four sides of the "Mogul" made projections in order to secure the stone on clothes or turban.
It is believed that the "Mogul" was brought to India by the Spanish conquistadors in the XVII century. "Mogul" belonged to the Mughal dynasty and was cut during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb, in the middle of XVII - beginning of XVIII century.
Weight 217, 80 carats. I originally belonged to the emperors of the Mughal dynasty. Faceted was between 1658 and 1707. during the reign of Emperor Aurang-Zeb. On one side is engraved prayers, on the other - ornaments of flowers.
Name bought one of the most beautiful and large emeralds are still kept secret.
BIGGEST yellow diamond "TIFFANY & quot;
Weight was cut to 287, 42 carats. Mined in South Africa in 1878 and bought by a New York jeweler Charles Tiffani.Na faceted stones sits inlaid with rubies, white and yellow diamonds bird of gold and platinum. Decoration of the history was put on only twice, including once Audrey Hepburn when she starred in the film "Breakfast at Tiffany's & quot ;.
BIGGEST white diamond "Cullinan & quot; ("Star of Africa & quot;)
The largest faceted diamond in the world His initial weight was 3,026 carats, size 100x65x50 mm. Was found by accident in 1905 in South Africa and, according to experts, is a splinter even larger crystal, which was never found. In 1907, the Transvaal government gave it to King Edward VII. In 1908, it was split into several pieces, of which produced nine large diamonds, 96 small and one piece in 69 carat 5 left untreated. His "fragments & quot; stored in the Tower (London). "Cullinan-1 & quot; built into the scepter of King Edward VII. "Cullinan-H & quot; inserted into the crown of the British Empire.
Does not yet have names, but most likely will be called "The King of rubies & quot ;. Weight of 440 carats. Found in Greenland. Stone has a complete structure. This means that it does not need to be sawed into several parts, and can only be pridatemu perfectly round shape. Who are engaged in Canadian jewelers. After finishing work ruby weighs 380 carats.
Rubin, being one of the gems are very fond of jewelers, and its rich red color goes well with the color of gold.
Translated from the Latin word «ruber» translated as "red." Only in 1800 it was found that ruby and sapphire are a variety of corundum. Prior to this, called ruby and red spinel and garnet (all three minerals also called carbuncles). The color of rubies varies on different fields and within the same field, so the judge on the ruby hue of its origin is not possible. Most valuable rubies are "colored pigeon blood" - pure red with a slight purple tinge. Coloring is often distributed unevenly spots or stripes. Rough stones have a dull or gloss zhirnovat but faceted ruby sparkles almost like a diamond.
By its hardness second only to diamond ruby (diamond), although 140 times softer it. In ruby frequent inclusion. They do not constitute defects in the stone, on the contrary - talk about its natural origin.
Large rubies are rarer than comparable with him vlichine diamonds. The largest gem quality ruby found in Burma, weighed 400 carats. The most beautiful world famous rubies are "Edward Rubin" weighing 167 carats. It is stored in the British Museum of Natural History. Star-shaped ruby "Riva" - 138, 7 carats, which is in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. Star-shaped ruby "De Long" - 100 carats. It is stored in the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
Numerous rubies adorn the crown jewels and vintage heirlooms. However, many of them have subsequently been "exposed", being red spinel. Among them, the "Black Prince's Ruby" in the British crown and the "Timur Ruby" now owned Kuwait Sheikh Nasser Sabah-Ab.
Many gems made to assign magical properties. Thus, it is believed, for example, that allows the owner of a ruby are safe even among enemies, awards invulnerability, but this stone should be worn under clothing on the body and it is advisable never to part with it. It manages amorous desires, to settle disputes, corrects bad mood, relieves distress and sorrow. Rubin increases the responsibility of man and promotes leadership aspirations, saving the owner from inferiority complexes and uncertainty. He creates love and attraction to the great, be it science or art. About Ruby Generally speaking, it gives strength to the lion, courage and wisdom of the serpent eagle. The stone can change the color of that owner serve as a warning of the danger, but for this skill ruby must be long enough to watch, if only because the color does not change too much. Ruby - stone those who want to achieve in life a lot, and it supports this owner if he does not have the vain conceit and understands that the great goal - the goal of achieving happiness to other people.
The bloodiest GEM "REGENT & quot;
Stone weighing 410 carats was found in 1701 a slave in the mines of Golconda. To make a large stone from the mines, Indian inflicted wound itself on waist and hid the diamond in a viscous. He passed the stone rope English, who promised him in exchange for freedom, but, lured to the ship, killed. The money received for the sale of stone Englishman, did not go to store. Quickly squandered it, he hanged himself. Stone bought Sir Thomas Pitt, a former pirate, but at that time the governor of the fortress of St. George. Back in London, he spent several years in seclusion, without parting with precious even for a minute. Tired of a slave stone, sold it to the French king. His eovali from the French Treasury, mortgages-wee Moscow merchant and reduce a sword in her Napoleon. Diamond now kept in the Louvre (Paris).
THE LARGEST PEARL "ALLAH & quot;
Though not a mineral, but let's not ignored. Diameter of the pearls 238 mm, weight 6400 grams. Was found in 1934. The lines on its surface resemble the convolutions of the human brain. Is stored in the United States, where it was brought through the Wilburn Dowell Cobb. He received it as a gift for saving the life of the first host pearls - the head of the island of Palawan in the Philippines.
Shell clams can grow up to 1.5 meters in length and reach a weight of 250 kg. The weight of the mollusc at most 30 kg; rest mass falls on the sink. This pearl was discovered bizarre Pearl Fishers Island Palovan the Philippines in 1934. The lines on its surface resemble human brain gyrus. The diameter of the pearl - 238 mm, weight - 12,800 carats (6,400 g). For comparison, artificial pearl diameter 7.5 mm would weigh about 3 carats (0.6 g). According to the "Guinness Book of Records", the laboratory gemstones in San Francisco appreciated gem of Allah $ 40.000.0000. Replicas of pearls on display in museums around the world.
The head of the island, a Muslim, has received a pearl in the property, saw her head in a turban and called the pearl of Allah. Five years later, a man named Wilburn Dowell Cobb saved the life of the son of the head of the island, and the pearl had come to him as a gift as a token of gratitude. In 1980, the heirs of the Cobb conceded her $ 200,000 Peter Hoffman, a jeweler from Beverly Hills. He sold the rights to the pearl of the Victor Barbishu from Colorado Springs, leaving himself 33% of ownership. Barbish told reporters that he received an offer from certain individuals from the group of Osama bin Laden, he purchased the pearl for $ 60,000,000, to give Hussein as an "overture unity" between "Al-Qaeda" and the Iraqi government. Barbish said that he had received other offers to buy him a pearl of 40.000.000 $.
He added that a few years the pearl was in Denver bank vault and he will not reveal the secret of its current location. However, the owner did not pass off a miracle of nature to some museum or library. "We sacrifice this gem, - he said. - We do not want money for it. We want to give it to charity in order that everyone can see it, whether in a museum or a presidential library ».
LARGEST SAPPHIRE "Lone Star & quot;
Among the famous star sapphire sapphire is known for "Lone Star", weighing 9719 carats. He was also called "Harold Roper" on behalf of the owner of the stone. Another sapphire, is considered the largest among stellate, had a mass of 63,000 carats. Found he was in Burma in 1966. Sapphire "Black Star of Queensland" was found in Australia. It got its name because of its dark blue, almost black color. After processing the mass of stone was 733 carats. Close star sapphire was found in Sri Lanka. Weight of the stone, called "Star of India", was 563, 3 carats. This stone was stolen from a New York museum, where it was stored. It was only two years later was safely returned to the museum.
Another famous sapphire "Eye of God" serves as an ornament to the throne of Nadir Shah in the unusual transparency. Sapphire "Logan" in 62-carat ring decorated with John D. Rockefeller.
LARGEST PLATINUM Nugget "URAL GIANT & quot;
The largest of the existing platinum nuggets weighs 7 kg 860, 5 g is called "Ural giant." Kept in the Diamond Fund.
The biggest nugget of pure gold
Found in 1869 in the area Moliagul, NY. Victoria, Australia, nugget "Desire Wanderer" weighing 70, 92 contained 69 kg, 92 kg of pure gold.
By the way:
In the constellation Centaurus, a distance of about 50 light years from Earth, astronomers discovered a star called them Luky, is a giant diamond. Block of crystallized carbon with a diameter of 1,500 km is the core of the ancient stars, which was very similar to the Sun, but later faded and decreased in size.
Payne entered in the Guinness Book of regordov as the rarest in the world gem ... At the beginning of 2005 was only eighteen known specimens, all of ordered and described. Of these, pure red peynitov was only 3, and was considered the most difficult instance №5. This stone was cut into an oval and weighed 2.54 carats. In 2006 he was found another source peynitov in Burma, which was raised from about 10 tons of raw material. Newly found peynity were very dark red, even more so - a brown-red or red-brown stone, and their value was a thousand times lower than previously known ... Nevertheless, from 10 tons of raw materials managed to Najran about 300 stones (it only gem-quality stones ), and now the total number of known and confirmed peynitov does not exceed 330 pieces worldwide (data for July 2009).
In general, the color spectrum ranges from peynitov pink to red and brown. Payne has an extremely strong pleochroism and flyuoristsiruet magnificent green under ultraviolet light. The world's only reliably attested deposits are in Burma, in areas Mogoga and Kachin. Payne received its name in honor of the British gemologist Arthur Charles Davy Payne, vprevye it investigated and described.
In recent years, the Internet is often offered for sale peynity. And if you believe in the reality offers a very dark brown-red painitov difficult, but still possible, it is suggested that the relatively high for e-commerce price red transparent painity are the absolute deception! This pure red Pain has no value - OH priceless !!!
Distinguish true even sverhtemny Payne from forgery is very easy, even at home. Under normal light blue lamp turns green real Payne markedly.
Mineral Serendib (not to be confused with Seranditom) found in various parts of the globe. But the gem serendebit remains with the nairedchashim in the world. Serendebit has a fairly wide range of colors - blue, blue-green, light yellow, dark blue and black. Currently reliably confirmed the existence of just over 1,000 faceted serendebitov, of which the vast majority are completely black. But for example light blue serendebitov there are only 3 copies, 0.35 carats, 0.55 carats and 0.56 carats. The first two were discovered famous seeker gemological rarities DP Gunezekeroy, more of them are represented in the photograph. Both stones were bought by the late Professor Gyuble from Switzerland, who estimated a smaller serendebit in 14300 dollars per carat.
Serendebit has a very complex chemical composition, which includes calcium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, boron and oxygen ... Serendebit name comes from the ancient Arabic name-Sri Lanka «Serendibi», is referenced in the description Sindbab his sixth trip.
All unique clean, bright colors serendebity were found in Sri Lanka, and the black serendebity (actually - extremely dark blue), which are cut from stones and jewelry collector quality, mined only in Burma, Edistvennoe mine in the South Mogoga.
In 2000, in Burma, in the northern Mogoge, found a stone that after cutting has become a very beautiful purple, obviously precious stone weighing 3 carats. In 2004, the same mine were found nine such crystals, including a pale pink, whose weight in the faceted form was 9.41 carats.
A comprehensive study of these stones found that they all belong to the mineral poudretteitu known since 1987. His name was in honor of the mineral family Poudrette, which to this day has a small mine, located in the bowels of the highest mountain in the vicinity of Montreal, Quebec - Mont Saint grief-Hileyr. Since 1987, this mine was found several dozen small, very pale pink, almost colorless crystals, recalcitrant despite its softness (5 Mohs scale) cutting quality.
To this day, in Burma poudretteit Bole was not found, and the Canadian miracle mountain gave chelovechetsvu only about 3 hundred stones of varying quality, of which about two dozen exceed a weight of 1 carat. Depending on the quality - purity and color saturation value poudretteita ranges from 2,000 to 10,000 per carat, except of course some of the most breathtakingly large and expensive stones.
Bright bluish-green or greenish-blue mineral recently been found in Madagascar. And before the first grandidierit was discovered in Sri Lanka and was originally adopted for serendebit. The first sample, a 0.29 carat faceted trillion (pictured), was bought for the first time and thoroughly investigated in 2000 by Professor Gyuble in Switzerland.
Grandidireit - having trihroizmom (blue, green, white) stone was named after the explorer, historian and naturalist Alfred Grendidira, including finder and dug up the bones in Madagascar famous fossil bird elephant weighing more than half of tonny.Po Nowadays reliably confirmed the existence of 8 grandidieritov and about a dozen suspected stones that can be identified as grandidierity.
Eremeeva - almost colorless, sky blue or very pale yellow stone, named after Russian mineralogist Paul Eremeeva first who found this mineral in 1883 in the Namib Desert, Africa. Discovered to date in several regions of the world, jewelry and collectible eremeevity still mined (no more than 1-3 per year) only in Namibia. In nature, found in the mineral form of small prisms (obeliskoobraznoy) forms. At first, these stones taken for rare aquamarine color and unusual crystallization. In 2005, Switzerland was represented by the largest known faceted Eremeeva weighing 2.93 carats. It is known for the existence of several hundred faceted eremeevitov, their cost, including the Internet, depending on the quality varies from 2,000 to 20,000 dollars per carat.
Maggiore - PURPLE GARNET
Maggiore - a rare form of garnet purple.
And so on.