Baikonur (Kazakh. Bayқoңyr; State Test Cosmodrome number 5) - the first and largest cosmodrome in the world, located on the territory of Kazakhstan, near the village of Tyuratam. It has international significance. The ability to run all types of launch vehicles. One of the three spaceports of the planet, along with the spaceport Cape Canaveral, USA and Jiuquan, China to launch machines with astronauts on board. The orbit of the ISS has been chosen taking into account the latitude Baikonur - he planned to carry out (and implement) major launches. Built Baikonur began January 12, 1955 and became the largest spaceport of the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, Baikonur Kazakhstan withdrew. Russia's lease until 2050. From the Baikonur Cosmodrome was carried out the launch of Sputnik and the first manned space flight, launched manned spacecraft series "Vostok", "Voskhod", "Soyuz" space stations series "Salyut", "Mir", the system is reusable "Energy "-" Buran ", interplanetary spacecraft, satellites. Cosmodrome produced an average of about 50% of all launches of Russian spacecraft and on the total weight of the payload output - more than 80%, including 100% of launches into geostationary orbit.