Do chickens prefer beautiful people:10 questions about important
How did the universe originate? Is there an effective cure for cancer? How to obtain cheap clean energy? These are just some of the important questions asked by scientists. But there are guys who had a nice time and got a good salary, answering specific questions that no one else was interested. 1. Whose fleas jump higher — the cat or the dog?
In the eternal war between "dog people" and "cat people" no details, in particular, it is important to know whose fleas jump higher. In 2000-m to year a brave group of scientists from the National veterinary school in Toulouse decided to close this gap in the knowledge of mankind once and for all.
Armed with plastic pipes and a bunch of fun fleas, the researchers started to work. They put fleas of each species — Ctenocephalides felis (cat fleas) and Ctenocephalides canis (dog fleas) in separate test tubes and counted how many fleas could jump. First, the height of the tubes does not exceed a centimeter, but then gradually increased.
Dog fleas won: on average, they jump to a height of 15.5 cm, and cat fleas — only 13.2 cm Dog flea record jumped by 25 cm, and the cat — only 17 cm 2. If objects seem smaller if you lean to the left?
Have you ever asked a question like: "do I Seem smaller this high-rise building if I lean a little to the left?" Probably not. Scientists from the Erasmus University in Rotterdam came up with a way to find the answer. They invited 91-year-old student, put them on a "Wii Balance Board" (it's a game controller for the console) and asked young people to evaluate different quantitative values, ranging from urban population to the height of the buildings. Unbeknownst to the students, the researchers ran the Board to the parties or standing straight, or leaning slightly to the left or right, when doing their assessment.
The hypothesis of the researchers was the fact that we usually visualize numbers in accordance with the invisible line: the smallest number on the left and larger numbers on the right. Thus, if we inclined to the left, it is natural for us to think about a smaller number of something. Oddly enough, the study confirmed that the estimates of those who "tended" to the left, was smaller than the other participants. 3. What force is needed to keep the sheep on the table when cutting?
Trim the wool from the sheep — no less dangerous than any other. If you are not careful, you can accidentally cut your fingers or the sheep may rush to the defense of their wool. But some sheep and strive somewhere in this time to leave the table, where they are placed for cutting. How to keep it? The fact of the matter is.
Australian researchers in 2002 year we decided to answer this question. A sheep (and their owners) get injured in the process of cutting, so that the question was relevant.
To participate were invited eight experienced shearers, also in the study involved five sheep, though not so willingly. The shearers had to capture sheep on three surfaces — steel, wood and plastic. Also, the surface was tilted at different angles to measure spent on fixing the sheep effect.
According to the study, the best surface for fixing of the sheep — wood, slightly tilted and rough. The force required for fixing the sheep, in this case, is 359 Newtons, which is 15% less than with other surfaces.4. Why woodpeckers don't get headaches?
Woodpeckers is known for its ability to get food from under the bark of trees and its contagious maniacal laughter. But how can they when their lives are able to avoid migraines, for a long time remained completely incomprehensible — they hit a tree with its beak 20 times a second.
So in 2011 year, the scientists decided to figure out why woodpeckers no brain injuries. They filmed the birds at the camera and measured the force of their blows with supersensitive sensors, and analyzed the structure of the head of the woodpecker.
The researchers found that traumatic brain injuries do not arise due to the morphology of the skull bones and the beak. It turns out that the bird is producing their food by striking the beak on a hard surface, is equipped to do that. Who would have thought? 5. Can people walk on water?
When we hear that Jesus walked on water, then react in different ways: believers call it a miracle, skeptics — a farce, and some researchers decided to check whether it is a scientific fact.
In 2003, the year a group of five European researchers set up an experiment — they faked it, like run on water, some species of lizards. First had to do with lizards, because in normal circumstances people are not able to move fast enough to avoid breaking the water surface and to dive into the water — we're just too heavy. But what if a little "pokoldovat" over the laws of gravity?
The researchers used a clever device of the seat belts and the children's pool: members supported by the straps, started just above the pool and tried to run on water.
In the end, the study showed that, theoretically, people can walk on water. Not only on Earth, where gravity is 10% of the earth — say, Pluto. However, there is no water. But, anyway, all you need to walk on water, is a good physical preparation and a different planet. 6. What food flavors horses prefer?
Horses, like people, are not all products like the same. For example, carrots-the taste is significantly different from petrolatum, and vaseline, the horse is unlikely to be there. And some dedicated people have found it necessary to determine the exact taste preferences of horses.
In 2005-m to year three (don't laugh) British researchers conducted a series of thorough inspections: fed eight to madness, must be happy horses food with various spices.
At first it was tested 15 flavors. The researchers recorded how quickly horses eat food with these tastes and how much food they had left untouched. The researchers then gave the horses to a choice of two of the most of their preferred "meal" to finally find out which one tastes better.
So, thanks to these dedicated guys we have a ranking taste preferences of horses. Record: fenugreek, banana, cherry, rosemary, cumin, carrot, peppermint and oregano. That's the everybody needs to know about the modern man! 7. Do people swim in the water faster than in syrup?
The answer to this question seems obvious: sticky and viscous the syrup for swimming is definitely not appropriate. But science can't rely on assumptions! All you need to confirm experimentally.
In 2004-m to year a pair of researchers created a test environment: full pool water depth of 25 meters poured food thickener — guar gum. The result was a thick liquid twice as dense as water. She looked like snot (sorry).
The most difficult part of the experiment was, as usual, paperwork — needed 22 approvals from different authorities. Well, it's usually do not allow anyone to leave the pool in some strange substance. But that will not do for science.
Surprisingly, to find 16 volunteers turned out to be a breeze. These 16 people on the stage tried to swim in the "snot", and the study showed that the difference with the water there: and the water in the syrup people swim with approximately the same speed.
When swimming in syrup swimmers do have to overcome more resistance. But the syrup allows you to exert less effort when moving forward — dense fluid serves as an additional support. So the answer is not always as obvious as we think. 8. Do chickens prefer beautiful people?
For most of us, all the chickens look alike, and to judge their attractiveness, we can't. Surely the chickens to our external data there is no case. But, as you understand, someone this issue was not allowed to sleep.
Researchers from Stockholm University who has been trained in six chickens (three males and three females) to distinguish human faces. The roosters received food when pecked pictures of women and hen — pecked when a picture of a man. I must say that distinguish between men and women, these six birds learned pretty quickly.
And then began the most interesting: of the first two photos have generated another five individuals, and then the researchers asked students to rate which faces they find most attractive. Then came the turn of the hens to make their choice.
Chickens rated the attractiveness of faces almost as much as the students. To explain this phenomenon clearly researchers can't yet, but I assume that both human and chicken sexual preferences depend on General properties of the nervous system. Well, our attractiveness can at least estimate prepared chickens — and that is good. 9. If the sandwich always falls butter side down?
Almost all know about Murphy's law: if something can go wrong, it will happen. If the street is only one puddle, you step right into it. If you choose the queue at the supermarket, then it will move slower all. If you drop a sandwich, it always falls butter side down.
Most people will decide that this happens due to the fact that the side with butter is heavier. But Robert Matthews, a British scientist and journalist, set out to prove that Murphy's law really works — at least in respect of the sandwich. In 1996, the year Matthews has published theoretical work on this issue, for which he received the IG Nobel prize.
In 2000, the year Matthews was finally able to test their hypothesis in practice: across the UK the students asked to leave their sandwiches on the floor and record which side down they fell. The results are striking: in 62% of cases, the sandwiches fall butter side down, and such a high percentage of coincidences can be explained by coincidence.
Further tests showed that oil nothing to do with it — far more influenced by the height of the table, where falls a sandwich. For example, from the tables above 2.4 meters bread with equal probability drops down by both parties. The fact that when falling from low heights the sandwich has no chance to make the air full rotation. Thus, Murphy's law occurs due to the fact that we have low tables, not because the oil is heavy.
10. What is the probability that the soldiers when the dislocation happens constipation?
When the soldiers are on foreign soil, they often experience intense stress they have to stay in a state of high alert in case of emergency. Studies show that the digestive system soldiers while also experiencing severe stress.
In 1993, the year this question was carefully examined at the 500 Marines stationed in a foreign area. Respondents were also asked to keep track of your successes and failures in the bathroom and complete the questionnaire. Had to find out where the soldiers frequently constipation — on foreign soil or at home.
Yes, in combat the constipation from the soldiers happens about five times more often than at home. The benefits of research certainly is now in the body of every soldier (at least American) there is a laxative.