Experience Gleb Tyurin on the revival of villages
Seventy one million nine hundred fifty one thousand five hundred eighty nine
A former currency dealer Gleb Tyurin decided to undertake rescue "bloodless" Northern villages. What Tyurin in 4 years made in the Arkhangelsk province has no precedent. The expert community cannot understand how it is possible to: Tyurin social model applicable to absolutely marginal environment and inexpensive. In Western countries similar projects would cost orders of magnitude more expensive. The astonished foreigners vying Arkhangelsk are invited to share experiences at various forums in Germany, Luxembourg, Finland, Austria, USA. Tyurin performed in Lyon at the world summit of local communities, it is actively interested in the experience the world Bank. How all this happened?
After high school, Gleb went to teach in a rural school in the remote district of the Arkhangelsk region. He gave pedagogy seven years of life. In the early 90's back in town, restored his decent English, developed in the elite English school, worked as a Manager and translator at different SP and Western firms, American business school, trained in the West, he studied banking in Germany and became a senior currency dealer in Arkhangelsksetremont.
"It was very interesting. But I felt so ticking of the mechanism: the whole day sitting in front of a bunch of monitors and clicked money. Sometimes at 100 million rubles a day," — says Gleb. That she is a former teacher who sells millions of dollars with exchange rate fluctuations? Wild stress.
And when he came out of the Bank, seen as the poor teacher organize a demonstration in front of city hall shouting grandmother, who did not pay the pension. "Through our Bank held a half billion dollars a year. The country did not need any foreign investment, we could do a fully modernize its economy. And all around was falling" — bitterly says Gleb.
The Yeltsin decade ravaged the North worse Russian civil war. In the Arkhangelsk region can be easily put away France. The region is rich, but today it is mostly wilderness, roads, unemployment. Under the Soviets, almost all the population was employed in the timber industry and agriculture. In 90-m to year canceled a planned economy, the switch is turned off. Milk and meat to the villages to buy stopped. In 10 years inhabitants of Pomor villages, left to themselves, that is, reached the handle: live almost entirely by gardens and mushrooms. Who can — leaving the majority bitter drink.
During a trip to Scandinavia Gleb somehow ended up working in a small village and saw "the circle of the future". Sit sober hardworking and think they will do when in a few years will close their plant. At first he thought they were from his advanced capitalism absolutely stunned. And then I realized that this is the socialism that we have built and not built. And decided to try the same thing to do in Russia. He invented and created the Institute of civic and social initiatives — non-profit non-governmental organization that undertook the revival of the Arkhangelsk province. "Local authorities there lives on subsidies from the top, divide them between districts. And on the periphery there is not enough money. Close schools, then — FAPs — all, the village is doomed. From 4 thousand villages in 20 years is good, if you stay a thousand", — predicts Tyurin.
But before the revolution the people of Pomerania manage hard, lived a sober and prosperous. In the Russian North have been developed many trades and crafts, a variety of cultivated crops, there was a brisk trade with other regions. Farmers themselves contain roads and villages. Nearly circumpolar received rye — 40 quintals per hectare, kept herds of cattle, built a large wooden house-fortress, which lasts and lasts — and all this in the absence of machinery, fertilizers, herbicides. It was for centuries the organized system of peasant self-government. That is the democratic traditions of the Russian North made the region prosperous. And Russian North in the 16th century — half of the country.
Gleb Tyurin reproduced the tradition of the Russian Zemstvos in the modern world.
With like-minded people he began to go to the villages and collect people for meetings, organize clubs, seminars, business games. They tried to stir up people who are confused, considering that all of them have forgotten that they are not wanted, and anything they can get. There are tried and tested technology, which allows sometimes quite quickly inspire people, to help them in a different look at yourself, at your situation.
Pomortsev begin to think, and it turns out that they have a lot of things: the forest, land, property, and other resources. Many of which are abandoned and die. For example, a boarding school or a kindergarten immediately stolen. Who? Yes, the very same local communities. Because every man for himself, and tries something for himself to grab. But they are destroying a valuable asset that can be saved and make the basis for the survival of the area. We tried to explain to the peasants ' gatherings: save the territory can only be together.
Tyurin found within this rural community to dissuade a group of people charged in the positive. Some of them created by creative-Bureau, taught them to work with ideas and projects. It can be called a system of social consultancy was to train people in the technologies development. As a result, over 4 years the population of the local villages has implemented 54 projects worth of 1 million 750 thousand rubles, which gave an economic effect of almost 30 million rubles. This level of capitalization, which neither the Japanese nor the Americans with their advanced technologies.
The principle of efficiency
"What constitutes a manifold increase in assets? Due to the synergy, by converting disparate and helpless in a single self-organizing system.
The company is a set of vectors. If some of them managed to combine in one and then the vector is stronger and bigger than the arithmetic sum of those vectors, of which he is composed."
The villagers receive a small investment, write their own project and are the subject of the action. Previously, people from the district center poked a finger at the map here will build the barn. Now they are discussing where and what they will do, and looking for the cheapest solution because of the money they have very little. Next to them coach. His task is to lead them to a clear understanding of what they are doing and why, how to create the project, which in turn drags the next. And each new project made them more economically self-sufficient.
In most cases this is not business projects in a competitive environment, and the stage of acquiring skills of managing the resources. To start with very modest. But those who have passed through this stage already can go further.
Generally, it is a form of altered consciousness. A population that begins to realize itself, creates within itself a competent authority, and gives him a vote of confidence. What is called the body of territorial public self-government (TOS). Essentially, this is the same Council, though somewhat different than it was in the 19th century. But the meaning is the same: a self-organizing system that is tied to the territory and is responsible for its development.
People are beginning to understand that they not just solve the problem of water or heating or lighting of roads: they create the future of their village. The main products of their work — a new community and a new relationship, the prospect of development. TOS creates in his village and tries to expand the area of well-being. A number of successful projects in a village building up a critical mass of positive, changes the whole picture in the region as a whole. So the streams merge one large deep river.
Here are real examples of what has been done to Gleb and his team:
In Konosha district since the Soviet land reclamation in the summer there is no water. Began to seek a way out. Remember: there is an artesian well, but we need to build a water tower. If you go through the usual administrative, construction will pull in a million rubles, the municipality has no such money. But the people have nothing to water the cattle and watering gardens. What to do? Came up: collect the water tower of the three old. Developed the project. The district helped with engineering software. Worked village free. We bought only new pipe wrenches — all building cost 50 thousand rubles. And now there is water!
In the nearby village Fominsk the same problem. Tosevii decided to put in order the springs near the village. This made them a local landmark. Cleaned up the trash around the springs, put concrete rings for water intake, log cabins, gazebo in the traditional Russian style decorative fence. And began to lure tourists. How? Very original. The springs were named the springs of love and kisses. The local registry office left advertising. And the couple went. A tradition was born. Now there is every Sunday a wedding. Go to the district center. Each wedding leaves 500 rubles. To village money. Already, the new Russian come to rest — there began the barbeque to finish. And yet there TOS to defend the forest from logging, has achieved the benefits to their veterans, took on the exchange of passports and many other things, which previously could not think. Now young people are beginning to catch up to Tosu — believe.
In the village hozmino Belsky district had another idea — to equip two houses for veterans of war. At first it seemed questionable. Why these two? And what's the development? Their argument: "We will make a more beautiful village." The effect of the project was incredible. For $ 250, the allocated grant, they are sheathed with clapboard two houses, painted and decorated with carved cornices and architraves. Living close look and think: it is necessary to make their homes or worse. So there was a whole Museum street houses, adorned with an incredible imagination. The idea of the project was more practical: to plow all the public to plant hay and grass, which gives a lot more green mass. After that, lisovtsy undertook to upgrade the old worn-out heating system of the village, where the mercilessly cold in winter, and constantly hung the threat of thawing system. In the 16 homes established oven or mini-boilers, and the vacant capacity of the heating system was sent to a school, club, hospital. The effect of the project: 80 000 rubles a year, saving budget money. Upon completion of the project savings amount to 600 thousand rubles a year. And hozmintsy undertook to restore its unique Church of the XVIII century.
In the village of Leushinskii near Kozmino group of women, creating a TOC, took over running the boiler building. It was a terrible dead industrial box of bricks filled bulks rusty boilers and pipes, where the wind howled and drunk alcoholics. Tusovki invented to make a shaping room. Raised the men, dragged boilers, insulated the building, put in order the roof and walls, lay floors, all painted, set the oven. Now there is a modern gym, around which began to swarm the youth and adolescents, those that were in limbo — they are tired to "fight". A region under the new sports center gave a half-head betting sports sections.
In the nearby village of the same Belsky Beach area — plenty of unemployed women. They decided to grow sprouts. Created a production cooperative. They were given non-repayable grant. The cabbage they grew was sold, the money improved health care, environment, Playground for children. And changed the situation in the village in principle. Now have renovated the club and create an information center where crafts.
In the ancient village of Oshevensk 40 km from Kargopol, CBT also turned to revival of culture and tourism. Places picturesque here, a lot of old, but still in a ruined condition, no work, all drink. Tosovtsy have abandoned merchant's house of the XIX century and in the two years it completely restored, recreating it in the interior of the last century. Had a wonderful small hotel Museum. When enthusiasts started, the village did not believe: "but what we have tourism?!" But when the project is successfully completed, the village began to ask, "Well, if you do something will you take us too!" Here have already visited Arkhangelsk Lord, tourists from Moscow and even America.
But in the village Zaozerye Mezensky district in the North region, on the border with the tundra, the situation may seem more complex than in the rest of Arkhangelsk villages. In the village there are only two children the school was going to close. No production, all closed. This almost complete isolation from the centre of the regional center! Broken road is the only winter — 550 kilometers of the death of flour. What is there to take? Began to think, to argue. And that's what I thought. In the area there are many elderly who need help. They are taken to the poorhouse regional center. What if for them to open a nursing home? No premises? Carry a huge building private kindergarten from the neighboring village!
Took for three years made! In January 2004, opened a nursing home for 14 persons. Many local work, a place of sale of agricultural products.
To attract nurse (headache for many, even the more prosperous villages!), lisovtsy repaired an abandoned apartment in the Dorm and gave ads in Newspapers throughout Russia: "Need a nurse. It is desirable with children. Furnished apartment is available." It turned out that the country is full of women who dream to get away from the drinker husband, but nowhere else. And it came to one — two children of school age. This means that the nursing home provided medical care, and more students were added. So, the school will not close.
Development is not the transfer of money, as some officials. The development is the transfer of skills, transfer of skills, transfer of knowledge, which shape the innovative behavior of residents of the community. Therefore, it is clear that this requires the appearance of people who know how to work with this professional, such professional "developers", people who help to create development. Innovation is necessary to bring, to adapt, to show, to teach, to help implement, maintain as long as she is not accustomed, in practice someone of the villagers will not be able to implement something innovative. And then you have the rest of the show, to explain, to expound. And then this innovation gains followers, becomes a fact of life.
With the "flow" of Turin and his Institute in Arkhangelsk region was established about 40 TPS — registered groups are not indifferent to their own lives. The real authorities in the village. These projects are, simply speaking, are built of several elements:
1. The people on the ground were combined to develop your countryside. To begin with it was a small group, which became the structure for the development of their village, their village — in fact, acted in partnership with each other and in partnership with the government.
2. These people themselves had changed considerably: they took responsibility for their own destiny. Already after a short time they thought and interacted in new ways, having certain skills and knowledge.
3. With some support from residents of dozens of villages in the North have found clever and original solutions to their problems, turning these decisions into projects and received the necessary resources, began the implementation of projects and in the majority of cases bringing them to an effective result — successfully completed first projects and started new.
This method of development leads to a powerful increase in the assets of the territory, to the actual its market capitalization — the fact that poverty and hopelessness are inferior to new opportunities, new local economy. And big money is not required for this. Rather, we need the will, desire and specific technologies of social consulting. Gleb Tyurin and his colleagues were able to show that real change can be started from anywhere, in almost any, even in the most seemingly hopeless places.
Developed tools and technologies begin to be widely used in the regions of the country. On territory development is today often thought the townspeople — they are the main audience, the main engine of change. It is a sign of our time. Before the city was cleaner, "devoured" the human resources of the territory. published