Black raspberry or Cumberland not so popular as raspberry with red or yellow berries. But if you happen to buy a few seedlings, we'll show you how to properly plant, care that is so sought after berries are black raspberries.The choice of location and soil for planting black raspberries
Plot for black raspberry preferred plain, North or North-West gentle slope. The soil is a fertile loam or sandy loam. Black raspberries cannot be planted at the place of the uprooted red raspberries or Apple. Poor predecessors are potatoes, tomatoes and other Solanaceae, which have a common disease, primarily verticillatae decay. It is impossible to land along the black raspberries and blackberries.
For a good harvest of black raspberry a very important quality of soil preparation and crop rotation. Otherwise you may get two to three times smaller berries and lower quality.
You should start with the following rotation:
1st year – fallow or green manure:
2nd year row crops (carrot, garlic, onion, lettuce, celery, pepper, nogdi, marigolds).
Spring or fall in the area under raspberries make a continuous layer of rotted manure or humus (15-20 kg per 1 square meter) that close up of bayonet spade. In the year of planting directly in the furrow or pit also adds organ mineral fertilizers.Planting black raspberries
In the garden planted black raspberries in scheme 1.5 to 2 x 0,5-0,7 m. the Pits prepared with a depth and a diameter of 40 – 50 cm each (srednemnogoletnih, podzolic soil) provide 6-8 kg of humus or compost tianwang, 150-200g of superphosphate and 70 to 80 g of potassium sulfate. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers can be replaced with wood ashes from the calculation of 500-600 g per pit. Complex fertilizer thoroughly mixed with soil and the mixture poured root system of seedlings.Then the plants are abundantly watered and mulch the soil with peat, rotted compost or chopped straw layer of 6-10 cm
Black raspberries can be planted and autumn (late September - October), and in the spring immediately after snowmelt, sometimes in the summer. But each case has its own negative points.
Plants of the Cumberland, planted in the fall, you can freeze the harsh winters without snow.
When summer planting conditions are favorable for their survival, but the roots can dry the lack of moisture, and the leaves and twigs to burn in the sun. The spring planted seedlings of black raspberry, affected the spring — summer dryness associated with the drought or late planting. However, despite this, the last option the best. Planting material, purchased in the fall, you need to properly heel and planted in spring as early as possible.The secrets of forming Bush,
One of the most popular ways is to create a strong, compact plants of black raspberries, which do not creep, Laden with harvest, and do not need support. To do this, when reaching a height of 50-60 cm annual shoots are pruned for 7-10 see It causes the awakening of axillary buds and the formation of them by the end of summer lateral shoots length up to 1 m and more. Then in early spring, before the growing season, these shoots are pruned, leaving each, depending on the strength of growth, from 3 to 6 buds. The weaker branches cut at the base. This method reduces the number of berries on the shoot, but it kompensiruet an increase in the mass and high commodity quality of the fruit.
From the black raspberry plant can be formed of various shapes, for example, arch. For this purpose shoot tips of two shrubs associated according to the scheme: the near escape of the first Bush with the average escape of the second; mid - far; distant from others. You must consider the lighting, the coincidence of shoots on growth and other factors. The splits must be whole, not segments, because it gives a definite direction to the shoots not only in form of shapes, but in a Bush. The plant produces 8-12 branches that grows deviate from each other in opposite directions. Shoots, conveniently located for the formation of the arch, leave without cropping. Those who strongly deviated to the side when reaching a height of 1-1,2 m cut the top 10-20 cm, the crop is formed by the brushes in the form of an inverted umbrella, and is located on the outer side of the arch.
Can be cultivated black raspberries and espalier. Set a year after planting. For this down the line every 8-10 m dig in poles with a diameter of 10-15 cm, to which is attached the wire: one at a height of 60cm and the other in another 60 To see him tie up shoots in the spring, after shortening up to 140-150 cm can Not prevent the thickening, because this worsens the light and opening-nutritive regimes of plants contributes to the development of fungal diseases. Therefore, immediately after harvest you must cut otplodonosivshih shoots, remove them and burn.
How to obtain seedlings of black raspberry
Unfortunately, planting material of black raspberry is still quite rare to find on sale. But black raspberries are propagated mainly apical and horizontal layers ( like currants), green cuttings. In the first case, the cuttings get acucela in late summer are weighed down to the ground the tops of the growing shoots. Under normal irrigation each kidney is covered with soil, it forms adventitious roots. In the winter they are covered with peat, humus or hilling the soil. Early spring is separated from the mother Bush and planted in a permanent place or plot for growing.
During the multiplication of horizontal layering in early spring all the stems are cut, leaving only stamboli height of 10-15 cm during summer grow in well-developed shoots, which in August, pin in the prepared grooves. With the appearance of adventitious roots, the shoots sprinkled with soil, leaving open apical buds and leaves. For the best acceleration need regular watering and in the winter – shelter. By the autumn of next year, of akorenkisla shoots grow, the young plants, which are separated from the mother Bush. During the multiplication of horizontal layers have a greater number of seedlings, but the mother hive in 2-3 years dies due to intensive exploitation.
Propagation of black raspberries and green cuttings in greenhouses. This is best suited to greenhouses to control moisture. As soon as the lignification of shoots, cut them and cut into cuttings with two – crown the kidneys one or one and a half leaves. Put in a solution of growth substances for 8-12 hours, then planted, buried to above ground one kidney leaflet. A mandatory condition approx this method of reproduction are the mist setting valid for 2-3 weeks, and a sand layer thickness of 4-6 cm on the ridges. The best time of the landing of rooted cuttings to the site of rearing early spring.Special utility
Black raspberry beats cancer! The unique anticancer properties of black raspberries discovered by scientists from the Cancer Center State University in Ohio. They associate these properties with the antioxidants contained in berries in very large numbers, preventing the formation of cancer cells and activating the immune sistemu.
Experience viramune a specific example
Consider the farming of Cumberland, the example of a grower from Tatarstan. In this garden Cumberland fruiting without replacement bushes for 12 years, and the harvest is not reduced. Bushes planted in a row, at a distance of 1.5 m from each other. The edges of the range set strong poles with a height of 2.2 meters and they stretched the trellis at a height of 1.2, 1.5 and 2 m. Powerful shoots of this plant ( in the lower part up to 2-2,5 cm thick) grow up to 2.5-3 m in height. However, they can easily turn into a "jungle". To get a good harvest, the bushes need to form correctly.
As soon as the young shoots of this year reach a length of about 2 m, pinch off the tip at a height of 1.2 to 1.5 m. usually Do it at the end of June, to cause branching. The second pruning carried out in early November, simultaneously with the removal of biennial shoots. By this time the side shoots reach a length of 1-1. 5 m Pruned them to 30-50 cm tidy and the bushes on each leave for 10-12 powerful branches. Other cut at the root. As such, the Cumberland removed from the trellis and laid on the ground. Additionally, do not cover, fairly and snow. However, if you do not better themselves pitch the snow.
In early spring, as soon as will become warmer, shoots up, and remove broken and tied up to a trellis so that they do not shade each other.Cumberland blooms abundantly in early June, it is wise to save the crop from late frosts.
As soon as you start to form first the berries, the bushes feeding infusion of mullein ( 1:6) or bird droppings (1:16). It added 50 g of superphosphate or liter jar of ashes. Pour a bucket feeding under every Bush and immediately pour 4-5 buckets of water. published
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! © Join us at Facebook , Vkontakte, Odnoklassniki