System of automation of external and internal illumination is measure that enables to solve a number of complex tasks. These include: enabling and disabling lighting on schedule or at the time of human activity, significant power savings (50-60 %), control of lamps and, of course, saving light source, the adjustment state of the lighting devices and the like.
The most popular devices, automatic light control, are presence sensors to switch on the light and motion sensors. These devices, which are connected in the circuit of the lighting equipment, and the appearance of a moving object in their field of operation, automatically serves to illuminate the lighting.
Disable lighting occurs after a certain time period after the moving object came from the application of the sensor, or ended its movement. First and foremost they are placed purposefully to ensure the comfort of people, and the payback period of occupancy sensors is about two years.The use of motion sensors and presence
The widespread presence detectors and movement to enable the light received in residential facilities: cottages, houses, apartments. As a rule, designated for their installation choose where people spend a short period of time and appear infrequently: bathrooms, pantries, cellars, corridors, hallways, attic. Sometimes they are installed in all rooms of the apartment. Often put presence sensors on the outside front door.
In addition to residential properties, the occupancy sensors actively used in administrative, office, educational and industrial organizations. Here they are installed in the hallways, in Elevator lobbies, fire exits, near the weekend and entrance doors, meeting rooms.Types of sensors the presence
Sensors according to the method of determining motion in a region of action are divided into:
Presence detectors, which only perceive the radiation, referred to as passive, and those who perceive and radiate signal is active.
Separately to say about the acoustic or sound devices. They give the signal to turn on lighting, if the noise level exceeds a predetermined value. We will consider a little later.
The principle of managing the sensors can be divided into:
- Systems that allow you to adjust the response time, distance to browse, sensitivity and light;
- System where there is the possibility of compulsory switching of lighting;
Automatic presence system give the command to switch on the lighting fully automatically when it detects moving objects and turn it off with the disappearance of the object. There are times when a person who is in scope of the sensor stops moving (sat down on a bench or just standing in one place). Also in this case it may be disabling the light sensor. To prevent these situations in the scheme of sensor connection normal switch by which man turns the light on in enforcing mode.
Many systems enable the light has the ability to change their performance. Adjustment devices to enable lighting with the help of the potentiometers, knobs which are located on the bottom of the case. To adjust are three indicators: on-time, the degree of sensitivity and light.
The degree of illumination set at a value such that the device worked only with the onset of dusk, in daylight, the activity sensor to anything.
The change in the degree of sensitivity required for precise work. The greater the sensitivity of the device, the more it will start to work on the activity. The meaning of the settings is that he responded only to the appearance in his field of sight of the person.
The setup time required to ensure that the device does not turn off after 15 seconds after the light. The time set on the personal discretion – from 2 to 15 minutes. That's how much time will illuminate the light after switching it on.
At the place of installation and type of sensors can be divided into:
- The system of internal work, which are mounted on brackets or recessed;
- The system of outer works, which can also be overhead or embedded.
The device for internal use and street design to be almost the same, only that the sensors have a higher body protection from external phenomena. Inside the building system installed on the walls or ceiling. Ceiling the device's presence to turn on the lights as wall-mounted variant, there are overhead (in this case, they are fixed to the surface of the dowel-nails or screws) or embedded (the fastener of this device occurs via specially made holes).
Often the sensors are mounted in the suspended or false ceiling. Their way of fasteners, similar to the method of fastening to spotlights. On the outside, usually installed overhead device.Also the sensors are different:
- The range of the review – from 7 to 23 meters and beyond. Motion sensors for turning on the light with the largest review of the operation, as a rule, are fixed on the street, in large rooms or long hallways. In small rooms set system, the range of which is between 7 and 10 meters;
- Power load, it ranges from 7 up to 2400 watts. Different models are designed for a certain load. When choosing pre-calculate the power of the connected lighting and be sure to take this into account. If over time the sensor will be connected to additional devices in the circuit or add a relay, or sensor. If the power sensor connected to the lighting higher than the calculated capacity, it will fail the relay outputs of the device. In this case it needs to be replaced;
- A view of the connected load. It's possible lamps: fluorescent, incandescent, halogen 12 Volts halogen on 220V with connection via transformer;
- Angle of visibility device (45-360 g);
- The level of protection.
Presence detectors to switch on the light outdoor or industrial are required to have protection from dust, high temperature and moisture. For devices that are mounted inside of office, administrative, residential, enough devices with a minimal degree of protection from external influences.Method of operation and design of
the presence detector depending on the form in different ways and may react to the presence of a moving subject. Every model has its own pros and cons, but to minimize the presence of negative factors, as a rule, make a choice in favor of the combined devices.Infrared sensor: principle of operation
Infrared models to enable the light have the design of pyroelectric IR unit, the main lens which consists of a series of small lenses and auxiliary electronic elements.
Presence sensors are enabled when the appearance and disappearance of IR waves in the solar cell where the source is. Their principle of operation is as follows:
- During the appearance of man in the scope of devices, each micro lens focuses infrared radiation onto the plane of the object, and one particular on the solar cell at this time is the detection signal;
- A moment later, as the movement of people, the lens completes the focusing of the infrared signal at the photocell because it has a defined area of sensitivity across the region of which one passes. At this time the signal disappears;
- If a person gets into the sensitive area of the next lens, it focuses the infrared radiation on the photocell. This process takes place until, until the person is out of the scope of the equipment.
The emergence and disappearance of IR radiation on the solar cells means that in the region of the sensor has any moving object, in our case.Ultrasonic and microwave sensors: method and design
the Main elements of microwave devices – high frequency generator, izluchenii receiver directly these radiations, but reflected. Installed systems, as a rule, security alarm system, but also connected in the lighting circuit. Ultrasonic equipment is manufactured from generatorconfig signals and receiver, and lighting systems is quite rare.
The method of operating these models is similar, and is done via the Doppler effect. The only difference in the type of the radiated signals. The process of determining the movement like this:
- Generators equipment generate specific signals to their frequency, which are distributed in a certain range;
- According to the degree of human movement, signals reflected from it arrive at the receiver a different length and a different frequency;
- Changing the frequency of the signal determined by the receiver.
the Main advantage of combined devices, unlike other is that they most of reduce the number of false inclusions. In one sensor casing are two systems of definition of movement. The light illuminates only when included both of the detector. The most popular is the merging of infrared and microwave methods of determining.Audio device for turning on the light
the Noise the device turning on the light gives a command to the circuit lighting circuit during the appearance of different kinds of sounds: the steps, clapping, opening of doors, conversations. In the role of receiver noise is set to the microphone that converts sound waves into an alternating voltage. The microphone sensitivity can be adjusted so that the light lit up only by the cotton or the appearance of other sounds.Does it make sense to make the sensor with your hands
In the network there are many schemes of manufacture of the sensor, one of which consists of:
- The building of the resistor;
- Power supply;
- Transistor and solar cell.
Manufacturing systems enable the light made by the schemes which are abundant in the Internet. But the price of parts and assemblies will come in a half or even two times higher than the cost of the finished product, which you can buy retail. Because, to purchase equipment for 350-450 rubles will be much more profitable.The outcome of
presence detectors and movement give an opportunity to significantly reduce energy consumption and increase the life work of street lamps. They will greatly help in backyards, which have decorative street lighting in the alleys, around gazebos and ponds. Their cost will certainly pay off after a few years of operation. Because the motion sensors is not only used for comfort but also an opportunity to reduce energy costs.
SUBSCRIBE to OUR youtube channel that allows you to watch online, download from YouTube free video about the recovery, the rejuvenation of man. Love for others and ourselves, as the feeling of high vibrations — an important factor for improvement .
Put LIKES and share with your FRIENDS!
P. S. And remember, only by changing their consumption — together we change the world! ©
Join us in Facebook , Vkontakte, Odnoklassniki