The easiest way to lose your head while searching for common smyslaInternet simply overwhelmed literature on popular psychology, thousands of newly minted "Freud" and "Yungov" from different countries publish their "revolutionary" research, of which we find a truly "sensational" information. "People with an attractive appearance is easier to live", "Extroverts happier introvert", "Time is not something we think about it" - these and hundreds of similar stunning "discovery" simply overturn our picture of the world on its head. Sometimes, in an attempt to explain the nature of human psychology theory pose, which at first glance to contradict common sense. However, this apparent contradiction, because the very notion of "common sense" rather arbitrary. To your attention - ten of strange psychological theories that find their adherents.
1. Agreeable people tend to unseemly postupkamPredstavte imagine that you have two friends - Masha and Dasha. Masha agreeable and friendly, and Dasha more closed, "prickly" man. Do you think some of the girls at your request, is able to hit a stranger?
inclined to compromise people is easier to accept the imposed their model of behavior, it is easier to convince them that committed action - "the norm", even if it is doubtful in terms of morality h4> Surely, your answer would be "Dasha". However, according to the results of experiments carried out by psychologists, talkative and nice to talk to Masha is easier. In the study, experts proposed by the participants hit the unfamiliar man an electric shock, and the pliant and compliant volunteers committed an offense more often those who can not be called a pleasant companion.
A curious phenomenon can be explained as follows: people inclined to compromise more easily accept a model of behavior imposed on them, it is easier to convince them that committed action - "the norm", even if it is doubtful in terms of morality. Individuals who do not seek to make a good impression on others and often come into conflict are more likely to refuse to proceed if they do not see sense.
It is worth mentioning that the motives of human behavior can not be described, taking into account only their ability to compromise - reasons leading to the commission of certain acts are too complex and ambiguous. To identify the relationship between actions and communication skills a person must take into account many other factors, therefore, the scientific value of a theory based on data obtained by researchers is conditional enough.
2. The form encourages police to nasiliyuVy probably heard about the sensational story of the murder of a young African-American police officer in the city of Ferguson. You do not have occurred to me that not to blame for the murder of the officer and did not provoke him, Michael Brown, and ... a police uniform?
According to the famous American psychologist Mary Konnikova, equipping police is not just associated with aggression from the citizens, it is able to influence the law enforcement themselves, giving rise to violence. In an article published in the magazine «The New Yorker» Konnikova states: "When the police dressed in protective suits used during the riot (as special police SWAT), they cease to be" just the police "and begin to feel a part of the state military apparatus ».
3. The language spoken by the person defines his perception of the world, "You are what you say" - think a Stanford University professor Lera Boroditsky and Temple University professor Aneta Pavlenko. Boroditskaya and Pavlenko convinced that the perception of the world depends on the language in which a person thinks and speaks. For example, in the language guugu yimitir used by some Australian aboriginal tribes, there is no word for "right" and "left." To describe the locations they use expressions like, "Man to the west of you - my father," explained Aborigines than "right" is different from the "left", rather difficult. Other, more well-known fact - in the dialect of the Eskimo more than 40 words to describe different types of snow, where the Americans will see a «snow», Eskimo recognizes «aput», beautiful «qana», or a huge «qimuqsuq».
In the dialect of the Eskimos more than 40 words to describe different types of snow h4> Boroditskaya and Pavlenko called language virtually the only factor shaping the outlook and perception of the person, but I must say, with their ideas and agree far all experts. Thus, a linguist John MakVorter believes that the important thing is not the language itself, and the culture with which it is associated. As an example, he cites numerous cases where polyglots, switching to other languages, became like other people. Be that as it may, the scientists agree on one thing - the study of foreign languages really changes the way of thinking, but the mechanisms of this phenomenon science remains to be seen.
4. Yawning need to keep in mind tonuseMnogie believe that yawning - a sign that the person wants to sleep and nothing more, but there are other interpretations of this physiological phenomenon. For example, according to Andrew Gallup, assistant professor of psychology, State University of New York, at the yawning has important biological and psychological functions. Gallup believes that people yawn, firstly, to ensure that the brain normal temperature and improve its effectiveness, and secondly, to get others to be more careful (this explains why yawning is so contagious), third, yawning may be a reaction to termination of receiving certain medications. It remains to add that the study of the properties of yawning going on, perhaps we will learn a lot more about her curious.
5. The popularity of coffee «Starbucks» has nothing to do with his kachestvomEsli you been to coffee shops «Starbucks», then you know what a queue for coffee sometimes line up in these institutions. The secret to the popularity of specialty drinks? Experiments show that most likely is not in the taste qualities: trying out different kinds of coffee "blind" people praise regular coffee from the supermarket, no less expensive patented «Starbucks Coffee».
The psychologist Dan Ariely, author of "Predictably Irrational: The Hidden forces that determine our decisions", believes he has found the answer to this question. Arieli says that the success of «Starbucks» is a great atmosphere of comfort and tranquility in the institutions of the network established by Howard Schultz. Schultz himself once mentioned that his coffee house should be something in between work and home, a place where you can relax from both. This situation makes people again and again to visit «Starbucks - being in a strange city, and saw the familiar white-green mermaid, people go for the coffee it to her. So coffee lovers trying to avoid possible unpleasant surprises - places «Starbucks» in all cities are the same.
6. Leaving aside while working, you increase the effectiveness of their trudaVeroyatno, Council distracted by watching funny videos and social networking during many seem at least strange. However, the staff of the University of Copenhagen claim - so you improve your professional performance. Studies Danes have found that people who are in the workplace is sometimes switched their attention to social networks and videos, not related to current problems, commit fewer errors than those who head out to work.
relaxing and getting rid of the backlog of the idea, people are charging determination and mobilize volitional resources, allowing them to continue to move toward the goal with the same efficiency h4> The researchers explain this curious pattern, considering the strength of will a person not as a consistent quality, as well as a finite resource, which from time to time it is necessary to fill up. In other words, instead of repeatedly rush to recess the problem sometimes is give the brain a rest. Relaxing and getting rid of the backlog of the idea, people charged willed determination and mobilize resources, allowing them to continue to move toward the goal with the same efficiency. Work without interruption is less effective, because the brain is simply tired to work on the same problem.
7. Consistency is not always goes hand in hand with schastemGovorya about someone whom we consider "happy", we often have in view of the wealth possessed by the man: "He has everything - car, apartment, cottage," plasma " on the wall, what more could you want? ". However, scientists say that the old adage "happiness money can not buy" is still relevant. According to Tim Kasser, a professor of psychology at Knox College (Galesburg, IL), people focused exclusively on the material component of happiness, have a less good health, more likely to experience financial difficulties and are generally not as successful as those who are cared for in not primarily about the bank account, and about themselves and their loved ones.
The desire to acquire a greater number of property and luxury goods psychologists believe an attempt to deal with any internal problems and to compensate for the apparent inferiority of life. In itself, material well-being is not able to make a man happy, obsession with luxury goods and other real "attributes of happiness" - a sign of a deep dissatisfaction.
8. Providing a person any service, you increase its credibility in their glazahKak know, the best way to please a man - for him to do something useful. However, it is possible to gain favor in another way - that people feel sympathy for you, give him the opportunity to be of service to you. People tend to feel good about not only those who benefit from them, but also those who help themselves. This phenomenon is called the effect of Benjamin Franklin - according to legend, the famous statesman once asked his political opponent at the time, to give him valuable rare book from the private library. Flattered by the request (everyone knew that Franklin loves good literature), the enemy sent him a book, they fought and eventually communication policy have become good friends.
Perhaps all of this - no more than a beautiful fantasy, but the effect of Franklin, certainly exists. One of the most likely explanation of the mechanism of this phenomenon is considered to be cognitive dissonance - that is, the psychological discomfort caused by internal conflict settings. When you render a service to anyone, the brain begins to look for motives of action to bridge the gap between thought and action. If the motive is not, the brain creates them himself, just making you feel sympathy for the man. We like themselves suggest themselves: "I would not help him just like that, for no reason. I like him, so I did it ».
9. Depression poleznaKak strange as it may sound, some experts believe that people need from time to time to sink into depression. For example, the psychologist Jonathan Rottenberg sure - it is a struggle between the negative and positive emotions allows us to live life to the fullest. According to him, the depression - one of the coping mechanisms, it allows us to save the life force and energy, protecting it from fruitless efforts. Of course, this does not mean that we should not fight depression - treat it easy and remember that it's just a reaction on our psyche the world.
10. Positive Psychology can be vrednoyMnogie people are convinced that it is necessary by all means to avoid negative emotions, every day they are like a mantra repeated phrases like: "I'm not angry, negative emotions are destructive. I am happy, no matter what. Everything will be fine ... ».
Negative feelings we have inherited from ancestors who were forced to survive in a constant struggle with predatory animals and each other. Negative emotions were a great man motivator that example, do not give yourself to tear the predator.
What to do with negative energy to modern people, because they have no way to relieve stress, choking one or two saber-toothed tigers? The study, conducted by members of the University of Liverpool show - negative feelings and in fact can be extremely harmful to human health, especially if you do not give them manifest. Suppressed negative impulses do not disappear without a trace - with time they can break out again, sometimes at the most inopportune moment. Psychologists advise - to keep the emotional and mental health, allow yourself to feel both positive and negative emotions, but of course, try not to go to extremes. Vyplesnuv negative, calm down and calmly think about the situation. Identify the source of irritation, develop a sequence of actions that you get rid of it and get down to business!