Psychology - one of those areas where almost everyone feels like an expert. People love to make diagnoses and to give advice to friends and colleagues - so they feel useful and clever.
But, as it happens to all "came out to the people" science, eventually took root in the public mind a lot of completely absurd "psychological" statements.
1. If the "let off steam", then immediately polegchaet
We often hear that "if you keep the anger in yourself, you can simply go mad!».
Such well-known tools such as the beating of special dolls, scream into a pillow or exercise with a punching bag for many appears to be safe and even useful alternative to, to express petty tyrant-chief of all that you think about it.
The idea of tearing anger on inanimate objects formed the basis of many of these therapies. And, apparently, it is quite reasonable. Better to unburden himself on the punching bag than to yell at the chief, and (this is still the best) remain out of work.
However, studies have shown that these methods are completely useless. Vent anger, even inanimate objects - it does not mean to get rid of the anger. In fact, after this session, the person has a desire to find another reason to get angry even more.
We all acquire habits - because that's how. When we do something that makes us feel better and more comfortable, we want to repeat it again and again, as often as possible. That "catharsis" that we experience during the outbursts of anger, no less addictive than other addictions. "Let off steam" to control anger.
If you strengthen the habit of beating the dishes or scream into a pillow at the slightest trouble, then what will you do if get angry, say, during important negotiations and have not find a plausible pretext to leave, retire anywhere with a suitable inanimate object and let off some steam?
2. Just believe in yourself and everything will turn out! 51,550,949
The fact that the self-confidence in their own exceptionalism - the surest key to success, we are hammered into their heads since childhood. It is believed that self-confident children is easier given the training they give birth to more friends, and subsequently are more adapted members of society.
Almost every movie from the life of students, you find confirmation of this theory. Thick outcasts, accustomed to constant mockery, as a result of any event gain confidence in themselves - as a rule, before an important school events. Classmates notice occurred Man radical change, he suddenly found plenty still dozing talents and he instantly becomes the star of the whole school.
This idea is put into the base of countless training and books like "How to succeed in life." In each of them can be found the assertion that self-confidence - a universal key to the solution of all problems and troubles.
Here we are dealing with one of those cases where people are confused about the cause-effect relationships. Instead, the statement "confident children live much better, because they learn well and they have a lot of friends", these "psychologists", reversing the effects and causes, trying to make us think that "success comes to those who are confident in themselves ».
That is invited to feel successful almost from scratch, and then, in theory, should be tightened and the real reasons for this self-awareness.
However, according to science, in fact, everything is different. Swollen, does not really backed by the confidence of the child in their own exceptionalism leads to the fact that he becomes aggressive when any sign of non-recognition of their superiority. And, most likely, sooner or later he will fall sick because events do not always develop in a desirable scenario for him (while at the fat man, by the way, has long formed an immunity to all sorts of disappointments).
Of course, we are not experts, but we believe that it would be better to teach children what really leads to success - how to communicate with other people, for example, or to overcome difficulties. Is not it better to allow children to really succeed and naturally feel that they are worth something ...
3. Advertising is full of secret signals that affect your subconscious and manipulate your povedeniem
For several decades, this myth regularly pops up, and each time in a new form. In the 80 it was popular the idea of secret signals and images (always sinister) in rock music, which can be detected, for example, scrolling through the song in reverse. It was assumed that such music even at normal listening detrimental effect on the subconscious mind of teenagers.
More popular were stories about the special technology of commercials where certain images flashed so quickly that consciously notice them was impossible. These frames were designed to subliminal perception and after watching you, without even realizing, execute commands crafty advertisers.
Today, the idea of this series appeared, called "neuro-linguistic programming." It is alleged that you can control other people, deftly and quietly screwing certain words into sentences.
This theory - another attempt to create a form of communication that would magically manipulated to bypass the conscious and subconscious, that is, to turn into a helpless puppet companion.
As far as can be judged from the scientific data available to date, none of the methods of "subconscious Control" does not work.
No, our brain can not perceive "inverted" message. Even if you lose a special song backwards, most of the "secret message" that you will be able to catch, will be the fruit of your imagination.
Once such a study was conducted: visitors to cinemas showing films with frames advertising Coca-Cola and popcorn have been elusive at the conscious level. The group conducted experiments, said the extraordinary increase in sales of related products after such film shows. However, later it turned out that the results were rigged.
As for "neuro-linguistic programming" ... Imagine that someone actually invented a reliable way to send out signals that can not be seen or heard, and that could turn people into robots, implicitly obey the will of others. Succeeded in this skill long ago would rule the world.
Then the invasion of a foreign country would not need an army. What for? You can just show the newscast on local television channels, and ordered the people to meet the invaders with bread and salt. And since no government in the world has not found such a magical way (although to many this is obviously very much like), then the method can be safely called a complete nonsense.
4. The detector lzhi
What do the hero of the popular TV show, is accused of murder and pretender to the highest bureaucratic post? All of them can check on a lie detector.
Technology that allows to separate the truth from the lies began to use nearly a century ago. During this time, the detector has been greatly improved, and has been actively used in all sorts of TV shows around the world. Participants passed lie-detector test and allowed to humiliate themselves in front of an audience of millions in the hope of winning a large sum of money.
The problem lie detector has seen the title. It implies that the machine somehow knows what it looks like and can really catch the slightest signs of inconsistency it. Of course, nothing like machines can not do. It simply measures the number of physical responses of the body, which can mean that a person tells a lie.
Scientific experiments have shown that the detector is really quite often able to determine where the truth and where - no. But until the accuracy and reliability of it is still very far away. In 2003, this issue carefully studied National Academy of Sciences (USA) and came to the conclusion that the detector can detect lies a little more accurate than the method of tossing a coin. If the machine error is so high, what it generally is the point?
There are many factors that can affect the accuracy of test results - from personality traits and physical condition of the test operator to manners to ask questions and the ability to interpret the results. In addition, there are many tricks that allow you to cheat technique.
So, in a sense, the detector is less than a nickel coin. With a coin, you at least know that the result - just a coincidence. A car is a false trust.