Paradoxically, lively debate and an abundance of information available does not make us smarter. The more skilled we argue, the more prejudiced and narrow-mindedness become. Here are five that evidence.
1. We are not programmed to search for the truth, and pobedu
Have you ever had to prove the absurdity of his friends and colleagues of some conspiracy theories? You bring a couple of absolutely certain "iron" evidence that, in theory, should once and for all to convince opponents of the error of their judgments. So what? They are embarrassed and admit they were wrong? Maybe more, and said thank you for what you have opened their eyes? Certainly not!
Will break a single argument - they immediately orient, find another justification for all of the same opinion, and your conversation will go around the circle. They will fight to the last, no matter how compelling the evidence did not lead you.
In science, there is a so-called "theory of argumentation", according to which the dispute does not appear to help us improve our understanding of the world, to find some kind of universal truth, or learn to make the right decisions. The meaning of any dispute is to gain credibility among his entourage.
"This is a social phenomenon - the researcher G. Mercier. - Its purpose is to learn to impose their will on others and not to fall for the wrong rod itself. The truth here at all to do with it ».
2. Our brain is unable to assess the extent veroyatnosti
Do you know people who would never sit in the plane, because "they often fall"? If you bring the statistics prove conclusively that the chances to break in the plane they have no more than dying, say, choking something for lunch, they immediately vypuchat eyes will wave his hands and will list you all the cases of the crash over the past five years.
Another example. The US government has so far spent on the fight against terrorism, about 1, $ 3 trillion, which can be considered a reaction to the death of 14 thousand people from 1975 to 2003. That is, for every sacrifice accounts for about $ 90 million.
Now imagine that a man would say, offered to send the money to the prevention of accidents at work (from which each year kills twice as many people than the World Trade Center during the 9/11). Or to fight cancer. Surely he would have heard: "Tell that to the families and friends of the victims!»
This phenomenon is called "Ignoring probability».
Primitive man did not have any ideas about how to assess the likelihood of a bear will eat it or not. He just knew for he did not want to be eaten. Therefore, our brain since ancient times is trained to solve equations such as: Bear Run =.
Today, this scheme continues to operate. Even when you have to deal with much more complex tasks.
3. We are sure - all just think about how to we nadut
Everyone knows that you can not trust just anyone. The world is full of secret intentions and hidden threats, so vigilance is by no means impossible.
So. Scientists say that we trust people much less than they deserve. According to their research, we underestimate this level almost doubled.
Suspicions that the people around us are driven by motives unknown to us, appear at the age of about seven years. Then, we have to live this life. And if we are to someone once labeled as a liar, then in the future we are likely to be able to recognize just what this person good at pretending. It's like racism, sexism or any other form of discrimination. Restore the trust is almost impossible.
And no matter what opinion do you practice and how the Party is - a game of "Guess the secret intention" is played every one. This game gives us only one thing - a reason to ignore any arguments of the opposite side. You reject them as perverse, they are doing the same thing, well, what kind of social cooperation can we talk about?
4. We all tend to have double standarty
If you ever had to take part in the discussion of the problems of excess weight, you've probably heard statements like: lose weight a breeze, and only an incredible unrestrained laziness and spinelessness prevents fat men do it.
And if you try to apply the same logic in dealing with the same people, but only have about their own shortcomings, for each weakness will be found immediately convincing excuse: the economy on the verge of a new crisis, women need only money, boss - a tyrant ...
And, mind you, the existence of objective circumstances that prevent weight loss is not allowed.
This phenomenon has a scientific name of "fundamental attribution error».
Man is so constituted that the mistakes of others and attributes the weakness of stupidity or vices. The property is always to blame circumstances and bad luck. If your co-worker showed up to work "under Shafei" - that is, of course, a disgrace and irresponsibility, and if you something just because a puncture, wife left or lost favorite team.
5. The facts do not affect our mirovozzrenie
Participation in the debate we are often perceived as the game as a team. There is his opponents. This applies not only to political parties. Fans of "Twilight", for example, can be divided on the principle of "Team Edward" and "Team Jacob».
Each will fight for "their", even if at stake is worth nothing - for the sake of victory. And certainly no arguments, evidence and facts not coerce anyone to change the team.
During a dispute in our heads is "Confirmation bias" caused by the need in whatever was to confirm the information that is consistent with our beliefs or prejudices. Regardless of the truth of this information and these opinions.
This is the same mechanism that allows the fanatics with a mad gleam in his eye to predict end of the world again and again, and not be embarrassed by the fact that he's not coming.