As Uziel Gal has created one of the most famous submachine guns and why this weapon is now armed with a hundred armies in the world.
Just today, quite accidentally found an article devoted to the history of the US sub-machine gun, and the most interesting thing is that I had never before even thought how, where and by whom it was rarabotan.
One of the first and most famous models of small melee weapons became an Israeli machine "Uzi." He produced more than fifty years, and all the while continuously being improved.
Automatic "Uzi" (or rather - submachine gun that is automatic melee weapons under pistol cartridge) is considered one of the most popular models of small arms in the entire history of the world. In the years after the creation of the legendary machine, the volume of its sales exceeded $ 3 billion. Today the armies and intelligence services and ninety-five countries in the world are more than two million barrels of the famous machine.
12 photos + text source.
From Bavaria to the land of Israel
Uziel Gal not always carried that name. He was born in 1923 in the German city of Weimar and at the birth of his name Gotthard Glass and his associates (other sources, his real name was Kurt Borkhard). He was born into a prosperous Jewish family - his father, Erich had a business in Munich, mother Millie was an artist, along with Gotthard grew his younger sister Elsa.
The whole life of the future gunsmith left a mark of his father's passion. Erich Glass during the First World War he was an officer in the German Army and in civilian life kept the army habits - he was a great lover and collector of weapons. The walls of the house in Munich, where the family lived Glass, decorated with old cold steel and firearms, and armor from the collection of his father, who carefully researched and he repaired all the copies of his collection.
Jewish refugees from Germany in the UK, 1938. Photo: AP
Passion for weapons, like his father, and took possession of small Gothardtom. At 10 years old he made his first home-made gun, which, however, exploded in his hands and a young designer received severe burns, and in 15 years built an original automatic crossbow.
Erich was a staunch Zionist Glass (supporter of the revival of the Jewish state in the historic homeland), and for this purpose had parted with his family, going with a group of German Zionists in Palestine. The family does not share the views of the Zionist father, remained in Germany.
A peaceful family life for Glass, like all German Jews had been violated when Hitler came to power in 1933. The Nazis were continuously introduced new discriminatory restrictions to the German Jews, soon led to the Holocaust.
The first years of the Nazi regime Glass family remained in Germany. Gothard was in Jewish gymnasium and planned to join his father in Palestine. Circumstances are extremely unfavorable for the German Jews - in Nazi Germany intensified anti-Semitism, but the way the outcome of the UK were closed, then ruled Palestine.
The British authorities in favor of the Palestinian Arabs completely denied entry of Jewish refugees to Palestine than dooming millions of European Jews to their deaths in Nazi death camps during the Holocaust.
This decision has outraged the UK around the world, and then the British authorities adopted a truly Jesuit decision - they were allowed to ship to the UK ten thousand Jewish children from Germany and Austria, the ban, however, entry to their parents, condemned to death.
Eleven-year-Gothard was one of the Jewish children who were with numbers on the neck accompanied to the UK parents never never saw their children.
In England exported Jewish children dispensed families voluntarily decided to take the little refugees. One of these families was the family of British grocer Roberts of Grantham town. Grocer's daughter insisted to take a Jewish girl from Germany. As time passes, the grocer's daughter Margaret Thatcher becomes - British Prime Minister.
The land of Israel
In 1936, his father succeeded Gotthard Glass from the British authorities permission to move her son in Eretz Yisrael. Thirteen-year Gotthard Glass settled with his father in Kibbutz Yagur near Haifa, and adopted the Hebrew name Uziel (US) Gal, under which he would become famous worldwide.
The time was not easy. In 1936, the Palestinian Arabs, led by agents of Nazi Germany raised an armed rebellion against the British and the Jewish population of Palestine. The response to Arab terror began fighting the Jewish underground army Haganah (Defense), together with the British troops firmly and decisively to suppress pro-Nazi Arab revolt.
Uzi has become a direct participant in the events in his home kibbutz. Happy kibbutzim worked in the fields, and at night in arms fought off attacks of the Arabs. There was no time for school - Uzi with 14 years started working kibbutz in the metal workshop, where not only engaged in the repair of tractors and farm equipment - there is a secret from the British authorities were manufactured weapons for the Jewish fighting units, including the most popular among the men submachine gun «STEN». Uzi Gal got important experience in the production of small arms with his hands.
In 1942 Uzi joined palms. Groups Palma (abbreviated Hebrew words "shock companies") played an important role in the war for the establishment of a Jewish state. Thousands of Jewish boys and girls voluntarily join to with arms closer hour establishment of Israel. In Israel, There is an expression "Palmach generation" - the so-called young volunteers in those years, ready to give their own lives for the ideals of Zionism and the Jewish state. Ideology Palmach was largely pro-Soviet and pro - Soviet Union and the Red Army is an example for the young Zionists.
Uzi was a gunsmith in the unit "Givat Haim." It was there in the rare free moments begins to develop his Uzi submachine gun, glorify the name of its designer.
With details of his submachine gun Uzi Gal was captured by the British patrol in late 1943. British military tribunal verdict was harsh - for carrying weapons Uzi Gal, was sentenced to seven years' imprisonment.
Term Uzi Gal served in prison in Acre. There he was, a self-taught mechanic, for the first time had the opportunity to learn the basics in absentia engineering - he performed several control works on assignments that are derived from the English College of Engineering. Coming out of prison after two years under the amnesty, Uzi Gal resumed in the workshop Yagura work on his project, but the beginning of the 1948 War of Independence of Israel permanently pushed his plans.
He fought on the northern front, in the infantry. First commander of the department, then became a platoon commander. In between battles Uzi continued to work on his project.
50s. Mayor Uzi Gal (in his right hand he holds his "Uzi", and left the German mr-40)
Creating an automaton "Uzi»
The summer of 1949, Lieutenant Gale was sent to study at the officer infantry school. October 20, 1949, he sent the chief Lt. Col. Meir School Zora letter describing his submachine gun and demonstrated a working model. Submachine gun Uzi Gal had an original design - Automatic "Uzi" works on the principle of free recoil bolt.
"Uzi." Photo: James Keyser / Getty Images
The main feature of this design is the gate that before firing his front end comes at the breech, Shot in the sub-machine gun "Uzi" comes bulging gate (ie, during the movement of the gate ahead) because the returns are not sent back, and forward.
Uzi Gal combat experience left its mark on the design of such important details of the machine, as a store, which is housed in the handle, and recharging takes place on a "hand finds hand" - this is very convenient for quick replacement of the store during the battle, especially in the dark. < br />
On the reliability of the automaton "Uzi" influenced his combat experience designer - he designed his weapon for fighting extreme conditions in the mountain-desert area with dust storms and high temperatures.
Technology of production of machine "Uzi" is simple - most parts can be made of cold formed on a universal machine tools. Care is simple and automatic - it is well protected from dust and sand and understands all five components.
The design of sub-machine gun, developed Uziel Gall, was a breakthrough in the rifle case. Compared with traditional weapons, which shot occurs when a stationary gate, managed to halve the weight of the machine and significantly reduce the size of the weapon. It was almost a new word in the creation of small arms.
One of the first examples of an Uzi submachine gun
Chief officer courses Lt. Col. M. Zora immediately praised the new weapons and a few days later appealed to the Chief of the Training Division of the IDF Colonel Chaim affectionate with a letter.
The letter said in part:
"I personally checked the weapon and here are my findings:
A. Easy to use (sits perfectly in the hand);
B. The instinctive shooting "knee" exceeds any known to me the weapon;
B. High accuracy;
G. No misfires except misfires associated with poor ammunition ».
Already October 31, 1949 Chief of Staff Gen. Yaakov Dori ordered the creation of a commission to study the issue of production of the new sub-machine gun.
Uzi got two workers and a workshop where finally completely gave work on his project. One year later, was ready first prototype submachine gun.
Uzi Gal distinguished modesty, combined with personal courage in battle. He fiercely opposed the fact that the machine was named after him. However, the company TAAS - weapons manufacturer Galya rejected a request not to give his machine name, referring to the fact that in addition to the name "Uzi" - it is also an abbreviation of the words "My strength in Gd" in Hebrew.
In 1951, the IDF has carried out tests "Uzi" in 1953 started its mass production, and in 1955 was finally adopted automatic weapons at IDF. Already in 1953, "Uzi" checks out the fight - it was armed with riot police during a sting operation in Gaza. Sinai Campaign in 1956 only confirmed the great fighting qualities of the new machines, which were armed paratroops.
Uziel Gal Triumph
Many years of work finally got the recognition constructor. In November 1955 Uziel Gal was marked by special order of the Chief of Staff of the invention in the military field, in 1958 he was awarded the Israel Prize.
Unique weapons became interested in the world. In 1956, sub-machine gun "Uzi" was presented at the competition in Holland and won first place, beating such famous competitors, as the Swedish automatic "Carl Gustav" and British "Sterling».
In 1958, "Uzi" was adopted by the Dutch army. During the visit, the Minister of Defence of Germany Franz Josef Strauss in Israel Uziel Gal showed that his machine. Strauss, a former officer in the war tankers Wehrmacht, immediately appreciated all the advantages of an automaton "Uzi" - compact and reliable, it fully meets the requirements for tankers personal weapons. Soon "Uzi" was adopted by the German armored troops.
Automatic "Uzi" and its modifications "Mini-Uzi" and "Micro Uzi" were adopted by the armies and security services nearly one hundred countries. Among his famous "users" protection of US President.
Uziel Gal (left) and Josef Strauss, 1958.
Revenues from sales of "Uzi" made billions of dollars, but Uziel Gal waived his royalties - he believed that just fulfilled his patriotic duty and raised billions of dollars should serve the state.
Uzi Gal continued to design weapons. His design bureau developed dozens of modifications "Uzi" for a wide range of combat employment.
Since 1957 Uzi Gal led the development of the new assault rifle. It was intense competition with other prominent Israeli designer - Yisrael Galili (Balashnikovym), whose design office led the development of similar firearms. "Fight the Giants' ended in defeat Uzi Gal - military-technical committee has adopted the Joint Staff of the IDF assault rifle 'Galileo', the brainchild of design bureau Yisrael Galili.
In 1976, Lieutenant Colonel Uzi Gal retired. For seriously ill daughter Irit required medical attention in the US, where the family moved and Gal. In the US, Uzi Gal continued construction of small arms. For the weapons of Ruger he created a submachine gun MP-9 based on their previous developments. During the filming of the blockbuster "Terminator II: Judgment Day" Uzi Gal was a consultant for Linda Hamilton on military affairs and the use of weapons.
Assault rifle (automatic) Series Galil
September 9, 2002 Uziel Gal died on the 79th year of life. He was buried with military honors in Israel, with his wife and daughter in the cemetery of Kibbutz Yagur.
With the demise of the genius designer did not end the story of his creation - for decades state concern IMI (Israel Military Industries) has continued to develop new modifications and manufacture of small arms under the world-famous brand Uzi. Recently, there developed a sub-machine gun "Uzi-Pro", which promises to be the same worldwide hit, like his legendary ancestor.
Submachine gun Uzi Pro also uses automatic blowback. Receiver weapons made from extruded steel sheet housing the trigger is made integral with pistol grip and trigger guard of durable plastic. On the cover of the receiver mounted Picatinny rail on which to put a telescopic sight and other accessories - such as laser pointer, and others.
According to Uri Amit, CEO of IMI Group, in modern warfare is a powerful and compact weapon, what is the "Uzi-Pro" is a must equip special forces soldiers and combat units.
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