How did the cult saga "Star Wars"

Star Wars - the legendary fiction saga, which later brought to life the director George Lucas, and later became one of the masterpieces of science fiction cinema. This post I would like to dedicate this history of the cult film, to tell some interesting facts as well as show you the rare arts.

The idea to make a fantastic film went to George Lucas is still a student, when he was working on his student project "Electronic maze THX 1138: 4EV." The idea is gradually taking shape, but only after meeting with Lucas film Akira Kurosawa's "The Hidden Fortress" at the idea of ​​the story appeared. In 1971, when Lucas was working on the film "American Graffiti", the first outline of the scenario of the future masterpiece. The whole story was packed by 12 sheets at a rather absurd title: "History Mace Windy, Monk Jedi Bendu, relative Ishiba Si Ji clans, a great student of the Jedi."
In parallel, Lucas worked on the screenplay of the film "Apocalypse Now," which he did not manage to remove the (movie, as we know, was filmed by Francis Ford Coppola at the same time with the "New Hope"). Later, Lucas read a few books on mythology, including Joseph Campbell, and decided that his plot coincides with the theory, to understand the "Hero with a Thousand Faces", so it has to strengthen the similarity. Over the next six years, the story is undergoing significant changes. For example, the first princess Leya Agilayya flew to the "Death Star" to save his brother Luke Starkiller, Han Solo and Obi-Wan Kenobi was one character, and the entire cast of the planned import from Japan.
At one stage Leia and Luke are reversed, Kenobi and Solo were totally different characters, not only by age and content, but also by nationality: the role of Obi-Wan wanted to take Lucas favorite actor Toshiro Mifune Kurosawa, and the role of Han Solo was supposed to find black.
By mid-1974 the second version of the script of "Star Wars" was written, but the studio still could not determine how many tapes will cost production because no one knew how it would look. In fact, "the Fox," hoping that Lucas will bother to punch the wall, he put up with the inability to make a film and they will disappear from the horizon. Apparently, they did not know who to contact.

Ralph McQuarrie
Even in 1973 through friends Lucas met with industrial designer Ralph McQuarrie, who worked at Boeing, and later drew illustrations for landing the crew of "Apollo" on the Moon.
Ralph McQuarrie was born July 13, 1929 in the town of Gary, Indiana (USA). After high school he studied at the College of Arts and in 1950 he took a job at Boeing in Seattle, where he was the youngest of fifty designers. Immediately after the job he was drafted into the army, and he even went to the front lines during the Korean conflict. There he was wounded in the head and had a bullet in the end did not stop the lining of the helmet, then we would not see any "Star Wars." After demobilization he entered the Art Center, where he studied industrial design and advertising. In the early '60s, Ralph moved to Los Angeles, where he worked in the company Reel Three.
The artist then wrote the concept for the painting and unrealized film project by Matthew Robbins and Hal Barwood "Star Dance", who liked George. And when it's time to look for a designer who would have "sold" the movie studio, George went straight to McQuarrie.
It's funny that the designer, change the appearance of fantasy genre, never interested in this genre before. "As a child I read a comic about Buck Rogers, but did not consider it something serious - he recalls. - I worked in Boeing and "sick" aircraft and spacecraft, slightly interested in the fantastic architecture, but never thought to start to draw it himself. But I liked to draw Hal and Matt so much that I thought, "That's where my place!" So suddenly I found myself. " Another interesting fact: while in 1975 over the "Star Wars" guys worked hard, whose average age is 30 years. But first employee is still non-existent while the company ILM was 45-year-old artist Ralph McQuarrie, who became the studio except in the statistics.
"I never thought I'd see George again after that first meeting - says McQuarrie. - But a few years later, he appeared - already with the scenario and demand of wage and asked would I be interested in doing a picture similar to what I did for Matt and Hal. I said yes ».
Then MacQuarrie had to write five paintings, which helped to get funding for the tape - the work of Ralph had to replace waving hands and explain on the fingers during the negotiations. It was November 1974. McQuarrie designed the fighter, the Death Star, Vader costume and appearance of the characters.
As in the scenario described is not all, he did his drawings for explanations Lucas. In addition, the script changes all the time, so relying solely to draw him there was no point. "I was sitting with a pencil in his hand and wanted - says Ralph - inventing the most grotesque images. George came every week and a half, and watched the result. Then we talked about what he wanted to see and what to correct in the finished work, if he liked ».
"I had a list of ten works that I would see completely finished - says Lucas. - We started from scratch, then I made changes, he drew it again. And when I realized that we had almost found what you were looking, he did a great sketch, from which then would be born a full picture. I brought the recent adjustment, and then he wrote the picture. Ralph put into operation a great amount of detail, textures and elements. I just told him why these devices or machines that they do and showing reference design. Sometimes it just turned out great, sometimes we come back and redo it. I trusted him completely ».
McQuarrie co-wrote George considers his paintings, because they are drawn by the vision of the latter. However, Lucas was not the only one co-author. In fact, it is necessary to dispel the myth that Ralph McQuarrie personally invented the whole look of the film - it is a lie. But first things first.
Total has made 21 McQuarrie concept illustration. He painted in gouache, watercolor and gouache or combine acrylic. As a result of the first meeting with Lucas there are five key paintings, which Ralph spent a couple of days at each. This work continued between January and March.

"Robots in the desert»
The first came to light R2-D2 and C-3PO. "George wanted to Tatooine was a desert planet with two suns, - says the artist. - I closed my eyes and thought: "The desert heat, no vegetation, only rocks and dust." And all at once the economy Tatooine was born in my imagination. First picture of what I did, was a picture of R2-D2 and C-3PO in the desert. - George showed me the robots from "Silent Running". It is a square box on two legs. I thought they were square, and I will make your cylinder, like a trash can with a dome, and instead of two legs it will have three. I painted the back of the Oregon coast, and instead of the sea - sand ».
"I showed Ralph the robot from" Metropolis "- says Lucas. - I definitely wanted one of them humanoid, it was described in the script. It was the head of public relations. And the second - just a regular "robot-like" robot ».
This picture was very important. When George hired actors he liked Anthony Daniels did not agree on the role robota.Eschё be - an actor with classical theatrical form, played on the stage of Shakespeare, did not want to spend a few months in a clumsy and uncomfortable armor in the film, in which no one will see his face, and the voice is not heard (originally Anthony overdubbed anticipated due to too the British pronunciation). But after Lucas showed him a picture of McQuarrie, Daniels could not refuse. "The robot seemed so unhappy and lonely - he says - that I could not turn and walk away, leaving him to his fate." That's how one picture can turn a person's life - ever since Anthony Daniels played only C-3PO, and very happy.

The second was Darth Vader. "According to the descriptions of George Darth Vader was a big figure in dark cloak - says Ralph. - He had to wear an iron hat, like fishermen - long descending down fields, and a mask. In one scene he had to jump out of the "Star Destroyer" and land on the ship that they were catching up, burn a hole in the body and find the victim. Accordingly, he had to withstand a vacuum and low temperature space, and later became a part of the costume of the character. " By the way, Imperial stormtroopers had to be able to do the same, for this purpose, they are dressed in their armor.
Now - about collaborators. In November 1974, simultaneously with McQuarrie, on the project appeared modelmeyker Colin Cantwell, whose Lucas found in the planetarium of San Diego, where he was making something for space show. But Colin was not a novice in this business - he worked on the film "2010: A Space Odyssey" and "The Andromeda Strain" and kept the house an extensive collection of models. It developed in parallel with the McQuarrie concept model ships, speeder, "Death Star." When to create another model McQuarrie brought her into his paintings.

"Flight to the" Death Star »
The first ship was coined by Colin Y-Wing. He hit the next picture Ralph, inspired by the work of John Berkeley. In her first appearance, and the first version of "Death Star." Here, it is still very small - even the windows are visible. The hole in the belly anticipated availability of awesome guns. Later, Lucas told Ralph that the Death Star to be so big that the surface looks flat, remaining ball when viewed from afar. McQuarrie has calculated that for such tasks it must have 148 kilometers in diameter and its circumference would have a length of 466, 7 km!

Fifth picture was a scene in the cantina when Han Solo is trying to get ahead of the alien, pulling his blaster. "I imagined this place ordinary bar in the entrance gallery, - says McQuarrie. - There have been torn posters and debris. Nothing points to a high space technology. George liked the overall feel of the picture, but he asked her to bring in greater mechanical things. For example, one of them was "automatic cop" in the form of a flying tennis ball. George said it was the search bots are looking for a specific person. After finding it, they performed a death sentence. "

"The city in the clouds»
No, it's not a mistake, I wrote the fifth painting, and the fourth was kind of floating in the clouds in the imperial city Oldorane. I think you all understand why this concept in the end never gets to the list of concept art of the "New Hope".

Evolution of the frame. Later, Ralph wrote in this picture TIE fighters, and the tape "The Empire Strikes Back" reworked it again

In one version of the script was a nameless protagonist Luke and Han Solo and Ben Kenobi - a single character. And one of the only evidence of this idea are the early concepts of Ralph McQuarrie, in which the protagonist of the film is clearly a female, while Han Solo appears lightsaber.

Early versions of the characters
"George wanted to Luke stood on the cliff looking over the city, which later will make a hand-drawn background, - says Ralph. - A "machine" was hanging in the air, so I found an interesting angle that shows the gap between the bottom of the car and the ground. The main character here - a girl with a long rifle, as he wanted, George. "

"Landspeeder" went through several design variations before it is approved. McQuarrie did some sketches and Cantwell - built a concept model. However, the concept model Colin remained unsold.
By March, Colin Cantwell finished as the prototype of a pirate ship, who also was in the paintings of the artist. Later, the ship turned into one in which at the beginning of the movie Leia is trying to escape from the Empire.
"The ship docked in Oldarana»

As a result, a model pirate ship has taken a lot of time. By the time Colin finished doing its concept in May 1975, ILM already hard at work, and in August the team draftsmen joined Joe Johnston, who finalized the many early designs.
Chewbacca, too, migrated from some sci-fi movie, going through many changes and adjustments. And then another was heavily modified by Stuart Freeborn, a famous make-up artist. But McQuarrie pleased with what happened in the end.
In this picture carries a wounded Chewbacca and Han Solo still with a beard. Plus, in this embodiment, Imperial stormtroopers could also use lightsabers.
"In the corridors Oldarana»

"Pirate ship at the dock Oldarana»
As a result, a model pirate ship has taken a lot of time. By the time Colin finished doing its concept in May 1975, ILM already hard at work, and in August the team draftsmen joined Joe Johnston, who finalized the many early designs.

"On Yavin»
Two paintings, completed in April 1975 show the Rebel base on Yavin, where the crew of one of the fighter flees from atstekopodobnyh ruins of the ship, parked on the side.

"On Yavin»
Cantwell and McQuarrie continued joint development of vehicles. Around April, Colin finished concept model sand crawler Jawas. McQuarrie reworked its design inspired by images of the device, which was created by NASA to study the terrain of other planets.

The painting Jawas figure out how to fix a broken caterpillar, which hit a stone. It should be a warehouse on crawlers for capacity and permeability. Inside should be a great storage space found.
Later, Joe Johnston reworked this design. "Ralph drew it too elongated and smooth, - he says. - I imagined something higher, clumsy, shabby and rusty. "

In November 1975 there was a picture painted on the outline of scenery John Barry, art director painting.
In this scene, Luke and Leia are folded in front of an abyss bridge Lash La Rue. Then, still believe that it is - interior Oldarana

Eighteenth picture also represented oldaranskuyu scene. Lucas explained that it is - a series of elevators and Luke, Han and Chewbacca to come and stand at the entrance to one of them. McQuarrie chose to make the picture more interesting than just draw elevator doors on a flat wall. He created them as separate cylindrical shafts. Oh, and I did so to make it appear that it is - part of the same interior of the station that the picture above.

"The attack on the" Death Star »
In the same month there were two paintings showing X-rebel Wing`i trench "Death Star." Early sketches McQuarrie showed smooth walls of the trench and gun at her bottom. It needed a dynamic action scenes and a plurality of laser beams. This pattern was particularly struck by Paul Huston and other modelmeykerov of ILM.

"The attack on the" Death Star »
In December, it was completed two paintings. The scene in the throne room was created after Lucas returned from England. "George told our decorations Ralph - says John Barry. - We spent so much energy on something to quickly build such great scenery. Ralph wrote it only verbal descriptions and well managed. "

"Throne Room" evolution pattern
The second image was a picture with sand people who scribbled Ralf in August. "I thought that they would sunglasses, perhaps due to a mutation of their species, they had vision problems - says McQuarrie. - Mask - the filters for breathing. Because they are often caught in sandstorms. Cylinders on the neck comprise either clean air or any chemical composition required for deceleration mutations. "

"Sand People»
Toward the end of the year McQuarrie had more and more to make their work approved designs ILM. Once claimed another ship, he appeared in the paintings of the artist. This was done to show all members of the team, he will look at the scenery and a number of other special effects.

"The dock Tatooine" evolution pattern
Evolution of the frame in the dock Mos Eisley. An early draft of the first version of the scene. Crane ceiling dock considered outdated and not included in the film. The final version has undergone redesign and appearance of Han Solo.
By the way, "Millennium Falcon" was also coined by Joe Johnston. Its establishment has known the myth that "Falcon" "is copied" bitten off a hamburger. Since we are not in front of a hamburger and ask, Johnston made so that the audience immediately understood the direction of movement of the ship.

"The Dock" Death Star »


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