How to build a skyscraper?
Such a miracle as a skyscraper, would not have been possible without the invention of the steel frame. The assembly of the steel frame of the building - the most dangerous and difficult part of the construction. It is the quality and speed of the carcass determines whether the project was implemented on time and within budget.
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That's why riveters - camaya important profession in the construction of a skyscraper.
Riveters - a caste with its own laws: the salary riveter per working day $ 15, more than any skilled worker on a construction site; they do not go to work in the rain, wind or fog, they are not registered in the state contractor. They are not alone, they work in teams of four people, and is one of the teams did not go to work, no one comes out. Why, in the midst of the Great Depression look at it through my fingers all the investor to the superintendent?
On the platform of planks, or just on the steel beams is a coal stove. Furnace rivets - 10santimetrovye long by 3 centimeter diameter steel cylinders. "Cook", "cooking" rivets - small bellows drives air into the oven to warm them up to the desired temperature. Rivet got warm (not too much - provernetsya in the hole and it will have to be drilled, and not too little - not riveted), you now need to transfer the rivet where it will bind the beam. What will be fixed when the beam is only known beforehand, and to move a hot stove during the working day can not. So often mounting location is from the "cook" in 30ti meters (thirty), sometimes higher, sometimes lower floors 2-3.
Send rivet can be the only way - to throw.
"Cook" turns to "keeper" and silently, making sure that the goalkeeper is ready to receive, throws the red-hot tongs 600grammovuyu disc in his direction. Sometimes trajectory has welded beams, you need to throw once, precisely and powerfully.
"Goalkeeper" is on a narrow platform, or simply on the bare ravine near where riveting. His goal - to catch a flying piece of metal tin ordinary tin can. He can not move from place to avoid falling. But he must catch the rivet, otherwise it would collapse a small bomb on the city.
"Shooter" and "stop" are waiting. "Goalkeeper", catching the rivet, pushes it into the hole. "Emphasis" on the outside of the building, hanging over the abyss, steel core, and keeps its own weight hat rivets. "Shooter" 15-pound pneumatic hammer for a minute clench it with the other hand.
The best team is doing is the focus of more than 500 times per day, average - about 250ti.
The pictures - the best in the 1930m team, from left to right, "chef", "goalkeeper", "stop", and the arrow & quot ;.
The danger of this work can be illustrated by the following fact: the masons in construction are insured at the rate of 6% of salary, carpenters - 4%. Bet riveter - 25-30 %%.
At the Chrysler building killed one person.
On the Wall-Street-40 killing four.
At the Empire State - five.
Skyscraper frame consists of hundreds of steel profiles of a length of several meters and a weight of several tons, so-called beams. Keep them in the construction of a skyscraper nowhere - will not be allowed to organize a warehouse in the city center, in a dense housing on municipal land. Moreover, all the elements of design are different, each can be used in a single place, so even attempt to organize temporary storage, for example, one of the last built floors can lead to great confusion and disruption of construction terms.
That is why, when I wrote that the work riveters most important and the most difficult, I did not mention that it is also the most dangerous and difficult. Work harder and more dangerous than they - work brigade crane.
Order beams has been agreed with steelmakers few weeks ago, driving up their trucks to the construction site to the minute, regardless of the weather they must be unloaded immediately.
Derrick - boom swivel is built on the top floor, assemblers - on the floor above. The winch operator can be located on any floor of the existing buildings, because nobody is going to stop the lift and distract other cranes for lifting heavy machinery on several floors higher for the convenience of installers. Therefore, raising juggernaut channel, the operator does not see the beam itself, or a car that brought her, or his comrades.
The only benchmark for management - a bell, a signal supplied to an apprentice foreman, who is with the whole team of dozens of stories above. Blow - includes motor winch blow - off. Nearby are several teams with their hammers, riveters (you ever heard the noise of a jackhammer?), The other crane lifted by teams of its bells other channels. Made a mistake and did not hear the punch can not - or channel ram boom crane or reset the installed vertical beam installers preparing to fix it.
Foreman, Derrick driving through the two operators, one of whom he does not see, is seeking matching holes on the riveting set of vertical beams with holes on raising channels higher up to 2-3 millimeters. Only then steam fitters can clip swinging, often wet channel huge bolts and nuts.
In New York on 6th Avenue is a monument to these guys, installed in 2001 model has become the most famous fot a minute, she's here in the first preview. So, we did exactly the first monument in the photo, ie 11 dudes sit on the beam. And then the most extreme Right were removed at the root. It was only due to the fact that he was holding a bottle of whiskey !!! I understand if we did during the time of Gorbachev, but they have in 2001 !!! Probably did not want to destroy the legend of brave guys. Now it's 10 quite decent guys sitting on a steel beam. Fine. But somehow insulting.
Monuments courageous builders