In a previous article we discussed the highest skyscrapers in Russia. Unfortunately, now none of built the country's skyscrapers are not included in the top ten tallest buildings in the world. Therefore, until the completion of the construction of Lakhta Center (commentators of the previous article) will talk about skyscrapers in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, China, USA, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Taiwan.
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Willis-tamersamy old from dozens of existing highest skyscrapers in the world was built in 1974 in Chicago. Its height is 442 meters excluding the spire, with the spire — 527 meters. In Russian Wikipedia Willis tower ranks 11th, but it is somewhat incorrect: Lakhta Center, which is already put in 8 place in the rankings, will complete in 2018.
Just think: for forty years, only nine skyscrapers in the world ahead of the 108-storey Willis tower in Chicago, and in the U.S. this result beat only the Freedom Tower, opened in 2014.
The design of the skyscraper was engaged Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, which was later erected and the Freedom Tower, and the tallest at the moment building "Burj Khalifa" in Dubai. Originally the building was called the Sears tower, and the name Willis received in 2009. The Foundation of the Willis tower stands on concrete piles driven into solid rock. The framework consists of nine square "tubes" that form one large square at the base. Each such pipe 20 is composed of vertical beams and multiple horizontal. All nine of the "pipes" are welded to 50 floors, then there are seven pipes to 66, to the 90-th floor are five and even 20 floors, climb the remaining two "pipes". Exactly how it looks — it is clear from photographs of 1971.
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Worker stands on the spire of the tower.
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The Willis tower in this photo on the right, with two spires.
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Tower Zzfenw Chinese Nanking until the mid-nineteenth century, stood a Porcelain pagoda, a Buddhist temple with a height of 78 meters. Travellers described it as one of the wonders of the world. On the skyscraper, Zsypin.
The construction of a 450-metre tall building, Zsypin ended in 2009. It is the business centre of the city. It houses offices, shops, shopping centers, restaurants and an Observatory. Only 89 floors.
Work on the construction of the tower lasted only four years. In the process the project changed: the tower can have a height of 300 meters. For China, where the population density is extremely high, efficient use of land is extremely important. The triangular site for construction of used to the maximum: the skyscraper has a triangular base.
The architects ' idea was to mix motifs of Chinese dragons, the Yangtze river and the green gardens. The river is the vertical and horizontal joints that divide the glass surface. These surfaces according to the architectural thoughts are a reference to dancing dragons. Inside the building was placed vegetation and pools.
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View of the city from the spire on the skyscraper.
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Tower Petronas the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur in 1998 erected skyscrapers called the Petronas twin Towers. Height two 88-storey skyscraper — 451 meters, including the spire.
The skyscraper is built in the Islamic style, each building represents eight-pointed star with a semi-circular protrusions for stability. The site for construction was changed after geological surveys. Initially, one skyscraper was supposed to stand on limestone, the other rock, so one of the buildings could sink. The platform was moved 60 meters. The Foundation of the towers, the deepest at the moment of concrete: piles driven to 100 metres in soft ground.
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The construction was complicated by an important condition: it was possible to use only domestically produced materials. Especially for the building has developed a strong elastic concrete, reinforced with quartz and comparable in strength with steel. The mass of a skyscraper turned out twice more than a similar steel buildings.
The bridge between the twin towers, fixed with the help of ball bearings. Hard mount is not possible as the towers sway.
The elevators in the building — two-story model, developed by Otis. One cab stops only on odd floors, the second on even. This will save space inside skyscrapers.
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International commercial Centra 118 floors of the International commercial center in Hong Kong housed the offices, hotels and shopping centers. The height of the building is 484 meters. Originally planned to build a skyscraper with a height of 574 meters, but the project changed because of the ban on construction of buildings above the mountains of Victoria.
Construction was completed in 2010, but the official opening was not followed: the building is already being used by the tenants. With 102 by 118 floors is the highest located above ground level, the hotel is managed by Ritz-Carlton. At last, the 118 floor is located the world's highest swimming pool.
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Shanghai world financial centre 2008, China built the Shanghai world financial center, a neighbor of Shanghai tower. The height of 101-storey building, 492 meters, although originally planned 460 meters. The building housed a hotel, conference rooms, offices, shops and a Museum.
The building can withstand earthquakes up to seven points, has protected from the fire floors. After the attack on the twin towers in new York, the building project was modified so that it could withstand a direct hit of the plane.
With its silhouette of a skyscraper called "opener". The trapezoidal hole at the top should be spherical, but the Chinese government was forced to change the project so that the building resembled the rising Sun on the flag of Japan. Such changes will reduce the cost and simplify the design. Such planned building top:
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Here's what happened as a result:
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101Столица Taipei Taiwan, Taipei, boasts a skyscraper with a height of over a mile. With a spire height of Taipei 101 is 509,2 meters, number of floors — 101.
Taipei 101 for some time was scored and the fastest elevators in the world: they rise at speeds over 60 kilometers per hour, or of 16.83 meters per second. From the fifth to the eighty-ninth floor people climb in 39 seconds. Now the new record belongs to the Shanghai tower.
87 and 88 floors is a 660-ton steel ball-pendulum. This architectural decision is made not only to decorate the interior. The pendulum allows the building to compensate for wind gusts. Durable, but not rigid the steel frame can withstand strong earthquakes. These decisions along with the Foundation piles, six feet in diameter, scored on 80 meters in the ground, made the building one of the safest in the world. 31 March 2002 an earthquake measuring 6.8 points destroyed two cranes installed on the building and claimed the lives of five people. The tower itself harm inflicted was not. But there is a theory that the skyscraper is activated by seismic activity.
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Tower Slobodyan international trade 1 in Manhattan, new York, were overtaken by the spire of its rival Taipei 101 by 32 meters, although if you count the distance from the ground to the roof, the American Freedom Tower losing the Taiwan tower is 37 meters. The height of the international Commerce Centre 1 — 541,3 meters, including the spire, and 417 on the roof.
The building stands on a plot which was occupied by the twin towers of the world trade center, destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2011. When designing ЦМТ1 the experiences of the past, and the bottom 57 meters made using concrete instead of the standard steel construction.
The building officially opened on 3 November 2014. It is occupied by offices, shopping areas, restaurants and the City television Alliance.
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The Royal clock bushnev Mecca in Saudi Arabia in 2012, built a complex of high-rise buildings of the Tower of the House opposite the entrance to the Masjid al-Haram, where is the main Shrine of Islam Kaaba. The tallest building in the complex — hotel Royal clock tower with a height of 601 meter. It can accommodate up to one hundred thousand pilgrims from the five million people annually visit Mecca. The Royal clock tower — the third tallest building in the world.
The tower's 400-meter height has four dials with a diameter of 43 meters. They are visible from any part of the city. This is the tall clock in the world at the moment.
The length of the spire on top of the hotel is 45 meters. On the spire of 160 installed loudspeakers for call to prayer. 107-ton Crescent moon on the top of the building has several rooms, one of which is a room for prayers.
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The tower hosted 21 thousand flashing lamps and LEDs 2.2 million.
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Shanghai balnamore tallest skyscraper located in the PRC. This is the Shanghai tower, a building height of 632 meters, adjacent to another skyscraper from the list — the Shanghai world financial center. 130 floors placed offices, shopping and entertainment centers, the hotel.
The building's elevators developed by Mitsubishi Electric. Their speed is 18 meters per second, or 69 miles per hour. At the moment it is the fastest Elevator in the world. These elevators the building has three, four double-Decker Elevator with a speed of 10 meters per second.
Beautiful view from the Windows of a skyscraper should not be expected. The walls of the building are double, it has a second casing designed to maintain the temperature.
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The tower has a twisted design that adds stability to fight the wind.
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From this angle visible spiral chute for collecting rainwater, used for heating and cooling.
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In February 2012, it was published video of two young and talented rufer climb to a height of 650 meters to the top of a construction crane according to extended Shanghai tower.
Borg Calipatria in 2010 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, the Burj Khalifa surpassed all existing skyscrapers and still is the leader in height.
The tower was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, which created the Willis tower and world trade center 1, which we earlier spoke. The construction of the Dubai tower has been the company Samsung, which also participated in the construction of the Petronas twin Towers. The building has 57 elevators you need to use them with transfers — only one service Elevator can climb to the last floor.
Located in the tower, the Armani hotel, designed by Giorgio Armani, apartments, offices, shopping malls, fitness centers and observation deck with Jacuzzi. Indian billionaire B. R. Shetty fully bought two floors, including a hundred, at the price of more than 12 million American dollars for each.
As in the case of the Petronas towers, the world's tallest skyscraper has developed its own special kind of concrete. It withstands temperatures up to 48 degrees Celsius. In the construction of concrete laid in the night, adding in a solution of ice. The builders did not have the opportunity to consolidate the Foundation in the rock, and they used a hundred piles with a length of 45 meters and a diameter of 1.5 meters.
If the Shanghai tower has a gutter to collect rain water in the case of Burj Khalifa, this approach is not necessary: rain in the desert a little. Instead, the building has a system for collecting condensate, which allows to collect up to 40 million litres of water per year for watering the plants.
During the filming of the movie "Mission: impossible-Ghost Protocol" Tom cruise decided to climb the tower to write down the name of Katie Holmes and make a great shot.
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Planned saniana the moment there are only two projects of buildings that can stand in the rankings of the tallest skyscrapers in the world.
Burj Khalifa height is 828 meters seem not so impressive compared to the Tower project at Dubai Creek harbour. Its the height of the roof will be 928 metres — that is, will beat the current record for 100 meters. But the spire does will be over a kilometer you can reach 1014 metres. But it's not exactly — the parameters of the building are kept secret. As the Eiffel tower, Tower in Dubai Creek harbour will be opened for the world Expo 2020, if all goes according to plan. The Foundation was laid on 10 October 2016.
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Tower in Jeddah, which was founded in 2013 and plan to finish by 2020, also need to overcome kilometers. 150-meter tall tower will host the terrace with a diameter of 30 meters. The construction goes very quickly — 2 December 2016 were ready 47 floors. The building will be the heart of the new business district, Kingdom Center, which is now a desert in Saudi Arabia.
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