These days in Japan, a very peculiar mark the anniversary: 35 years since the appearance of one of the most famous Japanese islands-ghosts.
In the East China Sea about 15 kilometers from Nagasaki is a tiny island Hashim (端 島) - «Border Island».
160 meters from east to west and 480 meters from north to south - a piece of rock, slightly covered with greenery. Around the biggest island of the Japanese archipelago in the seas damn Prorva scattered like debris and shrapnel. Some of them are populated mainly fishermen. Others - just bare rocks, refuge seabirds.
It seems that over the centuries the island of Hashim and was home to birds and a temporary refuge for fishermen from Nagasaki and Takashima.
In the 19th century came to Japan foreigners. And they drag with a lot of interesting and hitherto unknown Japanese things. Including all kinds of steam mechanisms operating on coal. Mechanisms like Japan and took root as useful pets. And the animals, even mechanical, must be fed.
With the development of its own industry and steam transport there was a question about the sources of raw materials, including - and coal. And in the 1890th year, the company "Mitsubishi shock» (三菱 商会), while - just a shipping company, bought the island of Hashima to develop coal deposits on the island and - with the long-term view - on the ocean shelf.
To service the mines were brought to the island of workers and began construction of a residential complex for staff "Mitsubishi" with all, as they say, infrastructure.
In 1916, on the island were built Japan's first concrete apartment blocks and around the perimeter of the island - "sea wall" that protects the island from storms and gales.
It was at that time the island gained appearance, for which he received his second name - "Gunkandzhima» (軍艦 島) - «Island Cruiser."
By the beginning of World War II coal mine on Hashima was one of the major coal producers in Japan.
Mining of coal and the island's population grew. In 1960, the island lived 5 267 people. What's in terms of area of the island gave the highest population density ever recorded in the world - 139 100 people per square kilometer
The island had its own primary and secondary school for children of employees. Hospital, Buddhist and Shinto temples. And everything else, the necessities of life without going to the "mainland." This small island nation.
"Raspberry" came to an end in the same 1960th. Happened the next (first?) Energy crisis: the coal was found unprofitable and "ekologicheki-dirty" fuel. Japanese transport and industry switched to oil.
Across the country began to close coal mines and reduce the number of workers employed in the industry. It is understood that the mine on Hashima was no exception.
During the subsequent decades of coal mining at the mine declined and the workers left the island. By 1974, on the Isle of cruisers it has only about two thousand people.
January 15, 1974 "Mitsubishi" announced the closure of the mine and stop all work.
April 20, 1974 Hashim left the last batch of residents. Island-Cruiser has become a ghost ship.
Are there any who are on a deserted island in the next three decades, there is no official data.
Island dilapidated, gradually turning into the scenery for the film-catastrophe.
The island was "discovered" again in the 21st century. And immediately acquired a great popularity, especially among fans of the ruins. Moreover, not so much in Japan as in the Western world.
Since August 2005, visits to the island are allowed journalistic groups. But only to a very limited area. Because collapsing buildings pose a serious threat. Some buildings have collapsed.
In September 2008, the island of Hashima (Gunkandzhima) was included in the list for the status of "World Heritage Site" as a monument of the Taisho and Showa.
Nagasaki Prefectural Government announced its intention to turn the island into a kind of park-museum. But the realization of this idea requires generously investment. As already mentioned, collapsing buildings make a walk around the island is very dangerous occupation.
On April 22, 2009 open teplokhodnye regular flights to the island and around the city of Nagasaki. In the nearest plans - clearing and the establishment of approximately 200-meter recreational corridor around the island for sightseeing "inside».